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Post-War World Council

Post War World Council Collection

1942-1961
1 box 0.25 linear feet
Call no.: MS 307

Founded and chaired by Norman Thomas in 1942, the Post-War World Council sought to lay the groundwork for a democratic and anti-imperialist end to the Second World War. As the face of the organization, Thomas promoted the pacifist ideals of internationalism, disarmament, and decolonization, however his failing health in the early 1960s led to the decline of the Council and its formal dissolution in 1967.

This collection consists of pamphlets from the Post War World Council that document a range of opinions concerning the war and the world, including titles such as “Saboteurs of Victory,” “The Case Against Compulsory Peacetime Military Training,” “The Future of the Far East,” and “Disarmament in the Post War World.”

Gift of Stephen Siteman, 1990

Subjects

Anti-imperialist movementsPeace movementsWorld War, 1939-1945

Contributors

Post-War World Council

Types of material

Pamphlets
Klekowski, Edward J.

Ed and Libby Klekowski World War I Postcard Collection

1917-1919
1 box 0.25 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1029
Depiction of American soldier creeping through barbed wire with grenades
American soldier creeping through barbed wire with grenades

A professor of Biology at UMass Amherst with and interest in the mangrove ecosystems of the Caribbean and the deep water environments of the Connecticut River, Ed Klekowski has become well known as a videographer and writer. He has produced documentary for PBS station WGBY on the Quabbin reservoir and the great flood on the Connecticut River in 1936, and on the Yankee Division during the First World War. He and his wife Libby have co-written two books on the First World War, Eyewitness to the Great War (McFarland Press, 2012) and Americans in Occupied Belgium (McFarland Press, 2014).

This small collection of postcards consists primarily of images of American military involvement during the First World War. The scenes depicted range from the first contingent of American soldiers to arrive in 1917 to gas attacks, tanks, and American soldiers and Marines in the trenches and combat during the summer and fall 1918. Among the more unusual form postcards are two cartoon images intended for use by soldiers on their return home, one each from the Knights of Columbus and the Jewish Welfare Board. The postcards were collected by the Klekowskis during preparations for their documentary on the Yankee Division.

Gift of Ed and Libby Klekowski, Nov. 2017.

Subjects

Belleau Wood, Battle of, France, 1918--PhotographsChemical warfare--France--PhotographsFrance--PhotographsSoldiers--United States--PhotographsTanks--United States--PhotographsTrenches--France--PhotographsWorld War, 1914-1918--Photographs

Types of material

Postcards
Walsh, Lloyd Edward

Lloyd E. Walsh Papers

1917-1936
1 box and footlocker 0.25 linear feet
Call no.: MS 541

In June 1917, Lloyd Walsh volunteered for duty in the American Field Service, and for three months he served as an ambulance driver for Service Section 68 (S.S.U. 68), a unit that included a number of Amherst College students. When the United States entered the war later in the year, however, most AFS units were transferred to the American Expeditionary Forces or disbanded, and Walsh transferred to ambulance duty with the American Red Cross. He continued to serve with the Red Cross after the war, stationed in Vienna, eventually rising to the rank of Captain.

The collection includes a thorough paper trail of Walsh’s work as a volunteer with the AFS and Red Cross during and after the First World War, along with a capsule service record, correspondence, and news clippings that flesh out his experiences. Adding to the picture is Walsh’s decorated Red Cross footlocker, two German helmets, and two Hungarian posters.

Acquired from Dan Casavant, 1999

Subjects

Ambulance driversAmerican Field ServiceAmerican Red CrossWorld War, 1914-1918--Medical care

Contributors

Walsh, Lloyd E

Types of material

FootlockersHelmetsPostersTrench knives
Allison, John R.

John Russell Allison and Marion Sellers Allison Papers

1941-2018 Bulk: 1942-1952
4 boxes 3 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1117

In August 1945, U. S. Army second lieutenant John R. “Jack” Allison was on a troop ship headed for the final invasion of Japan. By the time he arrived, the war had ended. Allison, a native of Ontario and the main provider of his family since he lost his father at 18, had immigrated to Evanston, Ill., in 1933. While taking evening classes at Northwestern University, he worked in a bank, rising from courier to internal auditor, before leaving for the printing firm R.R. Donnelley. He married Marion Sellers, formerly of Missouri, in 1942. When World War II began, Allison enlisted in the army. In Japan, with the war over, he became part of the American Occupation under General Douglas MacArthur, helping in a series of roles to rebuild and stabilize the Japanese economy. Eventually, he became director of finance, supervising the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry and the Central Bank of Japan. Marion and their three-year-old daughter, Jacqueline, joined him in Japan in 1947. While there, Marion studied the Japanese language, visited museums, learned crafts, taught English to new Japanese friends and acquaintances, and had two more children. After the family returned to the U.S. in 1951, the Allisons had another two children.

The Allison Papers richly document the family’s experience of American-occupied Japan from their different perspectives, one as a member of military and government operations, the other as a parent raising children and immersing herself in the culture. The collection includes materials from Jack Allison’s military service and work and letters written by Marion, mostly to her parents, along with two photograph albums, a scrapbook, and family histories in print and audiovisual form.

Gift of Jacqueline A. Osborne, March 2020
Language(s): Japanese

Subjects

Japan--Description and travelJapan--Economic conditions--1945-1989Japan--History--Allied occupation, 1945-1952World War, 1939-1945

Types of material

Administrative reportsLetters (Correspondence)Photograph albumsPhotographsScrapbooks
Stacy, Russell C.

Russell C. Stacy Papers

1918-1945
3 boxes 1.25 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1106

When drafted into the Army Air Corps in late December 1942, Russell Stacy (1922-2009) was as apprentice at the General Electric plant in Pittsfield, Mass., and was pursuing an engineering degree at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Training for active duty aboard the new B-29 Superfortress, it was not until April 1944 that planes were ready for operations, at which point Staff Sgt. Stacy became the central fire control gunner on the plane “Totin’ to Tokyo.” As part of the 793d Squadron, 468th Bomb Group, 20th Bomber Command, he was based in Kharagpur, India, with a forward base on Chengdu, China, and took part in bombing raids throughout southeast Asia, including the first mission to bomb Japan from China in July 1944. The logistical challenges of operating from China led the Air Corps to abandon the base in Jan. 1945, at which time Stacy returned to the United States for additional training. After the war’s end, he continued as a draftsman at GE, later working as an engineer in New England and Virginia for nearly forty years.

Writing home consistently throughout the war at least once a week, Stacy left a remarkably dense and thorough record of his service. Beginning at the point of his induction, the letters provide discussions of training to become a B-29 gunner; his time in India and China; bombing raids over Japan and Sumatra, and China; and his return to the States for additional training. Well written, though somewhat lacking in detail due to censorship, the collection provides a valuable perspective on a crew members’ experience in the China-Burma-India theater. The great majority of letters were written by Stacy to his mother, however some were addressed to his grandmother, and there are a few items relating to his parents’ experience during the First World War when his father served as an ambulance driver and his mother as a Red Cross nurse.

Gift of Amantha Moore, Nov. 2019.

Subjects

United States. Army. Air Corps. Bombardment Group, 468thWorld War, 1939-1945--India
Calin, Roswell A.

Roswell A. Calin Collection

1907-193 Bulk: 1918-1919
1 box 0.25 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1086
Depiction of Roswell A. Calin in uniform, 1918
Roswell A. Calin in uniform, 1918

Shortly before his twentieth birthday in 1918, Roswell “Ross” Calin joined the 44th Coast Artillery Corps and was sent overseas for service. Arriving in France in August 1918, Calin took part in the St. Mihiel offensive and was wounded in action. He returned to his home in Providence, R.I., early in 1919 and was active in veterans’ organizations for years, including serving as Rhode Island State Adjutant of the Disabled American Veterans in the mid-1920s.

The Calin collection consists of two scrapbook “volumes,” now disbound, assembled by Ross Calin to document his experience in the First World War. Labeled a “memoir,” the volumes consist primarily of photographs and postcards (including many real photo postcards) depicting American troops in the field, war damage, and sites visited by Calin in France. Also included are a selection of medals received by Calin, including a Victory Medal with St. Mihiel clasp, and some newspaper clippings, primarily from the post-war years.

Gift of Ed and Libby Klekowski, May 2018.

Subjects

United States. Army. Coast Artillery Corps. Regiment, 44thWorld War, 1914-1918

Types of material

MedalsPhotographic postcardsPhotographsPostcards
Kerewsky-Halpern, Barbara

Barbara Kerewsky-Halpern Papers

ca. 1942-2000
8 boxes 12 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1067
Depiction of Kerewsky-Halpern teaching ca. 1980
Kerewsky-Halpern teaching ca. 1980

Barbara Kerewsky Halpern was an adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of Massachusetts. She was also a prodigious writer, researcher, and lecturer. After earning a bachelors in geography from Barnard College (1953), she accompanied her new husband, Joel M. Halpern, to Serbia, helping him with his field project which would later result in his Ph.D. thesis and book, A Serbian Village (1958). She continued to work with her husband on numerous projects. After her youngest daughter was school age, she went back to college, earning a Master of Arts degree in Linguistics from the University of Massachusetts, followed by a Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1979. In 1983, she published a book entitled “These Are Your Neighbors” published by the Cambridge Book Company. She was diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis in the mid-1970’s, which motivated her to investigate various medical issues within Anthropology, eventually becoming a medical anthropologist. She became a certified practitioner of the Feldenkrais method, establishing her own practice under the name, “Mind Over Movement”. She gave presentations throughout her life, lecturing on various topics. In 1992, she served as an expert witness in the trial of Sadri Krasniqi, an Albanian man falsely accused of sexually molesting his daughter. In 1995, she was interviewed on the television program 20/20 by Hugh Downs about the case.

The Barbara Halpern Papers consists of many letters received from her childhood pen pals, college friends and family members. Documents from her early schooling as well as those of college and professional work as a lecturer and Feldenkrais practitioner form the bulk of the collection. Correspondence with Ethel (nee Russell) Breen, a young British girl, began in 1942 and continued to Breen’s death in 1996. The bulk of these letters, dated from 1942 to 1952, mention World War II, and other elements of daily life at that period.

Subjects

Feldenkrais methodMedical anthropologyMultiple sclerosisWorld War, 1939-1945--Children
Hood, Otis A. (Otis Archer)

Otis A. Hood Papers

1941-1957
1 box 0.5 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1056
Depiction of Otis Hood for Boston School Board, 1949
Otis Hood for Boston School Board, 1949

A long-time leader in the Communist Party in Massachusetts, Otis A. Hood (1900-1983) was a frequent candidate for public office between the late 1930s and early 1950s. At a time of increasing repression, he stood openly for Communist principles, speaking regularly on the radio and at public forums. In 1954, he was one of several activists arrested for violating the state ban on the Communist Party, winning acquittal, and he was acquitted again after a second indictment in 1956 on charges of inciting the overthrow of the federal government.

The Hood papers are a slender reflection of Communist politics during the height of McCarthy-era repression. The collection centers around Otis Hood’s public espousal of Communist ideals as a candidate for public office in Boston, and particularly his runs for the city School Board in 1943 through 1949, but it includes fliers, handbills, and other materials relating to Communist-led campaigns relating to the war, housing, public transportation, and education, but most importantly, transcripts of radio broadcasts made by Hood during his political campaigns and relating to a variety of social issues.

Gift of Bruce Rubenstein via Eugene Povirk, Oct. 2018

Subjects

Boston (Mass.)--History--20th centuryCommunists--MassachusettsRacism--MassachusettsSchools--Massachusetts--BostonWorld War, 1939-1945

Contributors

Hood, Frances A.Lipshires, SidneyMassachusetts. Special Commission to Study and Investigate Communism and Subversive Activities and Related Matters in the Commonwealthommunist Party of the United States of America (Mass.)

Types of material

Fliers (Printed matter)Printed ephemeraRadio scripts
Gardner, Leonard F.

Gardner/Wilson Collection of the USS Reid 369

ca. 1936-2015
1 box, 1 website 1.5 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1047
Depiction of Postcard featuring the USS Reid
Postcard featuring the USS Reid

A destroyer commissioned in 1936, the USS Reid was assigned to the Pacific Fleet and in 1939 was moved to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Reid was being serviced in port on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred. The Reid survived and was re-assembled so quickly it was out patrolling later that morning. Between 1941 and 1944, the Reid served on numerous patrol and escort missions, including in the Aleutian Islands and Solomon Islands and joined forces fighting in Guadalcanal. During the Reid’s involvement in the battle of Leyte Gulf, it was attacked by twelve kamikaze fighters, several of which made contact with the Reid, including one that crashed into the port quarter and exploded, blowing the ship apart and killing 103 of the 268 aboard.

The Gardner/Wilson Collection represents the efforts of Leonard F. Gardner (BA ’49), Pearl Harbor survivor, who served on the Reid from 1941-1944. Gardner collected photographs and documents from former shipmates and produced a newsletter from 1997 to 2015 that recorded the lives of shipmates and included photographs and information about the USS Reid. In addition to the original materials Gardner collected, a full run of the newsletter and other documents related to the Reid’s service in World War II, the Gardner/Wilson collection includes a website curated by Gardner and designed, created, and maintained by James M. Wilson III (MBA ’86, MS ’86, PhD ’00), whose father, James M. Wilson, Jr., served on the USS Reid from 1940 and survived its sinking in 1944. Wilson also conducted oral histories of remaining USS Reid 369 members in 2006. The original website can be found at http://ussreid369.org. SCUA also maintains an archived version of the site. Several documents and photographs relating to the sinking of the Reid were added to the collection by Gordon Seastrom, a Pearl Harbor survivor and Reid shipmate.

Gift of Leonard F. Gardner and James M. Wilson III, 2018

Subjects

Destroyer escorts--United StatesKamikaze pilotsPearl Harbor (Hawaii), Attack on, 1941Warships--United StatesWorld War, 1939-1945 -- Naval operations

Contributors

Gardner, Leonard F.
Perry, Henry H.

Henry H. Perry Papers

1940-1942
4 boxes 2 linear feet
Call no.: MS 1019

A Quaker investment broker and attorney, Henry H. Perry was born in Rhode Island in about 1885. A prominent figure in the New England Yearly Meeting, Perry was called upon by the American Friends Service Committee to act as director of three of the Massachusetts Civilian Public Service Camps: Royalston, Petersham, and Ashburnham. Under the Selective Service Act of 1940, negotiations between the Selective Service and the major peace churches resulted in the creation of a system by which conscientious objectors were allowed to refrain from direct participation in the war, by serving instead in Civilian Public Service camps. Assigned to “work of national importance,” they filled in for war-related manpower shortages in a variety of areas, including the Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service, mental hospitals, telephone line maintenance and repair, fire-fighting, and clearing fire debris that was left in the wake of the 1937 New England hurricane. Living in Petersham with his wife Edith (Nicholson), Perry served as director of the camps from June 1941 until they were discontinued in October 1942. Perry writes, in a letter dated November 1942, that he is “no longer connected to CPS;” his correspondence is addressed from Dover, MA, showing that he relocated to the Boston area. However, little information is available about him after the camps closed.

This collection consists of administrative and business records concerning the start up, operation, and shut down of the AFSC-run CPS Camps in Royalston, Ashburnham, and Petersham, Mass. Camp Directors were under mandatory orders to keep the strict records that make up the bulk of this collection—administrative documentation, correspondences, health records, itineraries, financial reports and budgets, all pertaining to camp operations. This documentation acted as a deliberate gesture, demonstrating the competency and legitimacy of CPS camp work to Selective Service authorities. However, this collection also contains some personal correspondence and notes not directly related to camp administration, that give a personal, everyday-life, glimpse at the stresses, struggles, and emotional labor, on the part of Quakers, who had to step up, come together, and make the best of a terrible situation: protecting and caring for conscientious objectors during a time of war.

Part of the New England Yearly Meeting of Friends Records, April 2017.

Subjects

Civilian Public ServicePacifists--MassachusettsQuakers--MassachusettsWorld War, 1939-1945--Conscientious objectors

Contributors

American Friends Service CommitteeSociety of Friends

Types of material

Newsletters