Reflective, critical, and radical, Carl Oglesby was an eloquent voice of the New Left during the 1960s and 1970s. A native of Ohio, Oglesby was working in the defense industry in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1964 when he became radicalized by what he saw transpiring in Vietnam. Through his contacts with the Students for a Democratic Society, he was drawn into the nascent antiwar movement, and thanks to his formidable skills as a speaker and writer, rose rapidly to prominence. Elected president of the SDS in 1965, he spent several years traveling nationally and internationally advocating for a variety of political and social causes.
In 1972, Oglesby helped co-found the Assassination Information Bureau which ultimately helped prod the U.S. Congress to reopen the investigation of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. A prolific writer and editor, his major works include Containment and Change (1967), The New Left Reader (1969), The Yankee and Cowboy War (1976), and The JFK Assassination: The Facts and the Theories (1992). The Oglesby Papers include research files, correspondence, published and unpublished writing, with the weight of the collection falling largely on the period after 1975.
Background on Carl Oglesby
An activist, writer, lecturer and teacher, Carl Oglesby has participated in, written about, and analyzed some of the most important events in the recent history of the United States. His experiences before, during and after the Vietnam War as a political activist changed the trajectory of his own life and contributed significantly to the American political discourse on many subjects such as Vietnam War, Watergate, World War II, and the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King. In his long career as writer and activist he has addressed many issues, spoken at hundreds of universities and protests as well as traveled the United States debating various political issues.
Oglesby was born in 1935, an only child living first in Kalamazoo, Michigan and later in Akron, Ohio. He was raised in a deep-South Christian Fundamentalist environment, one he both revered and resented, later in life referring to himself as a “silent Christian.” He attended Kent State University for almost four years in the mid-fifties during which time he married Beth Rimanoczy in Kent, Ohio. In 1957, he left the university without receiving a degree. During this time, Oglesby began writing plays. His first play Season of the Beast, produced in Dallas, Texas in 1958, was promptly shut down for being a “Communistic Yankee atheist’s attack on down-home religion.” Although Oglesby didn’t know it at the time, this was not the last time he would be accused of being a Communist or an atheist.
Despite his interest in playwriting, Oglesby sought out steady work. He became a copy editor for Goodyear Aircraft Corporation for a year before moving to Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1958. There, he headed the Technical Writing Division at Bendix Systems, a defense contractor, until 1965. Although he befriended many people in Ann Arbor who were politically active, Oglesby shied away from engaging in much activism. He felt proud of his middle class home on Sunnyside Road, his family and secure job, and was reluctant to challenge the establishment that employed him. Even though Oglesby knew that Bendix was designing systems to distribute chemicals and poisons over the Vietnamese jungle, he “was not above” his work at Bendix. He and Beth were fully prepared to raise their children in the American, middle-class tradition, even if it meant not being as politically active as they would have liked.
In 1964, Oglesby began working as a writer for the Wes Vivian Congressional campaign. At a meeting, he was asked to produce a position paper on the Vietnam War in the event the issue came up during the course of the campaign. The paper Oglesby crafted not only provided him a crash course in Vietnamese history, but it also found its way into the University’s literary magazine, Generation, along with his new play The Peacemaker. The play depicted the classic feud between the Hatfields and the McCoys, and the inclusion of Oglesby’s position paper in the same magazine gave his play about an age-old family feud a modern, political twist. More importantly, the unexpected publication of his position paper led him to his first introduction to Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), an introduction that would change the course of his life and force him to choose what role activism would play in it.
Oglesby’s first real ideological struggle with his middle-class lifestyle and career, however, came the previous year when President Kennedy was assassinated. Despite the fact that he and his colleagues faced a looming deadline, Oglesby was concerned that the flag had not been lowered as a sign of respect to the fallen president. When he tried to urge management at Bendix to lower the flag to half mast, he encountered a strange scene in which the executives seemed actually to be celebrating Kennedy’s death. Although Oglesby continued working at Bendix for several more years, he became more and more aware that his political sensibilities might be in conflict with his safe, middle-class lifestyle. In particular, as the Vietnam War was becoming more an issue of public debate, Oglesby was forced to acknowledge that his nice, secure job in the defense industry might actually be contributing to it. Indeed, his friends in Ann Arbor began to challenge him, asking how he could reconcile his job at Bendix with his own sense of values. As it turns out, he couldn’t.
In 1965, Oglesby went with a friend to a meeting of the local SDS chapter. At the time, SDS was in desperate need of literature to distribute in response to the many requests they received for information about Vietnam, and Oglesby’s position paper soon became their official response. Later that same year he traveled to Kewadin, Michigan to attend a national meeting of SDS. At this meeting, members hotly debated whether to eliminate the offices of president and vice president on the grounds that such roles were elitist. Oglesby spoke out against the measure claiming that an elected national leader speaking on behalf of the group would be held accountable by its members, ensuring that the SDS message would not become diluted or confused. Oglesby further argued that SDS needed a unified, national identity in order to ensure that all SDS chapters were working towards the same goals and the public was hearing the same consistent message.
After voting to keep the national officers, the members moved to elect a new president for SDS. According to Oglesby, he was nominated along with about a dozen other people. After many of the nominees declined their nominations and two rounds of balloting, Oglesby was finally elected. Although he had only attended a few meetings, he was now the national president of SDS. Having no idea of the drastic turn his life was about to take, Oglesby returned home and began his year-long tenure as the president of the most radical student organization in America.
This unexpected turn of events caused great upheaval for the Oglesby family. As president of SDS, Oglesby traveled constantly giving speeches, attending meetings, and organizing political protests. He even traveled to Cuba and North Vietnam with SDS. Within months of his appointment as president, the F.B.I. began following him and building an extensive file on him, his family, friends and fellow SDS members. SDS was often accused of being a communist organization because of their political beliefs and the way they chose to organize themselves. It was a huge transition for Oglesby to go from having a secure, white collar job in the defense industry to being the spokesman for a radical student organization. The stress only intensified as Oglesby was away from home more and having a hard time balancing his lifestyle as the president of SDS with his family’s needs. He and Beth moved from Ann Arbor to San Francisco hoping to alleviate some of their stress, but the pressure was too much and they ultimately divorced in the late-sixties.
In addition to his family problems, Oglesby had a hard time understanding the accusations leveled against SDS, later observing, “I was never a radical, I just believed in democracy.” For Oglesby, the government’s refusal to even debate the issues that SDS and other organizations were raising demonstrated sheer hypocrisy. How could the U.S. be so aggressive in trying to spread “democracy” in Vietnam while actively silencing their own citizens? He was appalled that the government spied on him and other members of SDS, while also attempting to infiltrate the organization. Oglesby recalls that many members grew distrustful of one another as it became more apparent that some SDS “members” were actually FBI agents. In many cases these agents were the ones who advocated for a violent response or protest, and over time this became the tell-tale sign that someone was working for the government.
Although Oglesby only served as president of SDS for fifteen months, he remained active in the organization for several years. He grew very close to fellow SDS member Bernadine Dohrn and was unhappy in 1969 when she, along with other key members of the group, decided that SDS’s principle of engaging only in non-violent protest was no longer an effective way to achieve their goals. Dohrn thought that the antiwar movement had embraced nonviolence long enough, and that “symbolic violence” was the only way to make the government pay attention. She and others, including her future husband Bill Ayers, seized control of the SDS national office and formed the Weather Underground Organization. The Weathermen, as they were known, began to bomb post offices and other government properties. Despite their adamance that their use of violence was meant to bring attention to their cause by harming buildings and not people, their plan backfired in 1971 when three of their own members died in an explosion in a Greenwich Village safe house.
For Oglesby, the Weatherman’s actions were synonymous with the death of SDS. Although, the individual chapters of SDS continued to grow, the national office, now under the control of the Weathermen, ceased to exist. Oglesby vehemently disagreed that SDS had lost its power, but with the core organizers leaving, there was little he could do to save SDS on a national level. Over the years, Oglesby wrote several articles about the decline of SDS in which he defended the group not only for leading the way on important issues of the day, but for promoting debate and discussion as a means of educating people about the United States government, the Vietnam War, and the political ideology of the New Left.
As Oglesby moved away from SDS, he was not interested in resuming his secure, middle-class lifestyle. In 1972, he co-founded the Assassination Information Bureau (AIB), which led a successful public campaign urging Congress to revisit the investigations into the assignations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. He was also involved in AIB efforts in Washington, D.C. to force the release of government documents relating to the assassinations. During this period, Oglesby continued to write, working for the Boston Phoenix and Boston Magazine as a regular contributor and editor. Indeed, Oglesby was a prolific writer throughout the 1970s, publishing The Yankee and Cowboy War: Conspiracies from Dallas to Watergate in 1976, and writing numerous other articles that appeared in magazines such as Playboy, The Washington Post, The Nation, Life, the Saturday Review, Dissent and the Boston Globe. In addition to his political and social commentary he also served as the annual report writer at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1981-1988.
By the late 1980s, Oglesby was fully immersed in research relating to the end of World War II, research he first conducted while writing The Yankee and Cowboy War. In 1988, he formed the Institute for Continuing De-Nazification aimed at organizing efforts to bring full public disclosure to top-secret government documents containing information about the relationship between the Gehlen Organization, formerly the intelligence network of West Germany, and the U.S. government. Oglesby filed suit against various agencies in the federal government claiming the intelligence documents should be publicly available under the Freedom of Information Act. With the help of attorney James Lesar, this lawsuit has been moving through the federal court system for over two decades, resulting in the release of thousands of pages of classified, top-secret government documents. These documents form the backbone of Oglesby’s research on the Gehlen Organization and the post-World War II settlement between Germany and the United States. Although, Oglesby has yet to publish a full-length book on this topic, he has lectured and written several extensive articles in this subject.
Oglesby continues to write and speak about political issues, often drawing parallels between the current political controversies and those that SDS faced more than three decades ago. His experiences have proved invaluable to a new generation of political activists who are asking many of the same questions that Oglesby faced when he joined SDS in 1965. After many years of silence, new SDS chapters are popping up across the country drawing the old ideals of “New Left” to push their political agenda forward.
Much of Carl Oglesby’s life has been spent considering and commenting on the political climate. From his 1962 play The Peacemaker to his extensive research on the Gehlen Organization, Oglesby has never been shy voicing his opinion about our government and the people who work in it. His papers chronicle the various issues and topics in which he has taken an interest over the past forty years, including the Gehlen Organization, the Vietnam War, the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr., and America’s post-World War II struggle for political power between the established elites of the North and the emerging ruling class of the South and West, which he defined as the “Yankee and Cowboy War.”
The collection contains Oglesby’s drafts, notes, outlines, correspondence, writing fragments, manuscripts, and research materials like articles, book excerpts, newspaper clippings, and interviews. F.B.I. and C.I.A. documents pertaining to the Gehlen Organization and Oglesby’s work with SDS are included as are the legal papers that document the lawsuit he filed to obtain these classified materials. Also present are notes, research materials and drafts relating to his memoir, referred to early on as “Ravens on the Wing,” but published as Ravens in the Storm in 2008. Finally, correspondence, family histories, and photographs provide some insight into Oglesby’s personal life.
Books in the Carl Oglesby Papers were separated from the collection and cataloged individually in the Special Collections.
- Altizer, Thomas J. and William Hamilton. Radical Theology and the Death of God. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1966.
- Armstrong, Karen. The Battle for God. New York: Ballantine Books, 2001.
- Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War through the Dawn of a New Century. New York: Doubledy, 2001.
- Baxandall, Lee, ed. Radical Perspectives in the Arts. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1972.
- Be Now Here. New York: The Lama Foundation, 1917.
- Brandon, S.G.F. Jesus and the Zealots: A Study of the Political Factor in Primitive Christianity. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1967.
- Brueggemann, Walter. The Bible Makes Sense. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001.
- Coppola, Vincent. Dragons of God: A Journey Through Far-Right America. Atlanta: Longstreet Press, Inc., 1996.
- Cox, Harvey. Fire from Heaven: The rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-first Century. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.
- Cox, Harvey. Many Mansions: A Christian’s Encounter with Other Faiths. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.
- Diamond, Sigmund. Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945-1955. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- Eck, Diana L. Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. Boston: Beacon Press, 2003.
- Eck, Diana l. A New Religious America: How a “Christian Country” has Become the World’s Most Religiously Diverse Nation. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2001.
- Farren, Pat, ed. Peacework : 20 years of Nonviolent Social Change. Baltimore: Portkamp Publishing Company,1991.
- Grant, Michael. Jesus: An Historian’s Reviews of the Gospels. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1977.
- Johnston, Douglas and Cynthia Sampson. Religion, the Missing Dimension of Stagecraft. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
- Keating, Thomas. The Human Condition: Contemplation and Transformation. New York: Paulist Press, 1999.
- Klaus Barbie and the United States Government: Exhibits to the Report to the Attorney General. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1983.
- Lee, Martin A. The Beast Reawakens. Boston: Little, Brown and Company,1997.
- Liturgy of the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonim. Printed in the U.S.: Soka Gakkai International, 1992.
- Mauriac, Francois. Life of Jesus, translated by Julie Kernan. New York: Avon Book Division, 1937.
- Millegan, Kris, ed. Fleshing Out Skull & Bones: Investigations into America’s Most Powerful Secret Society. Walterville, Orgeon: TrineDay, 2003.
- The New Covenant Commonly Called the New Testament of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Rev. standard ed. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1946.
- Oglesby, Carl, ed. The New Left Reader. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1969.
- Oglesby, Carl. The Yankee and Cowboy War: Conspiracies from Dallas to Watergate. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McNeel, Inc., 1976.
- Oglesby, Carl and Richard Shaull. Amerikanisch Ideologie Zwei Studien uber Politik und Gesellschaft in den USA. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1969.
- Oglesby, Carl and Richard Shaull. Containment and Change: Two Dissenting Views of American Foreign Policy. New York: Macmillan Company, 1967.
- Oglesby, Carl and Richard Shaull. Containment and Change: Two Dissenting Views of American Foreign Policy. New York: Macmillan Company, 1970.
- Oglesby, Carl and Richard Shaull. Keerpunt Pleidooi voor revolutie. Utrecht: Amboboeken, [1967?].
- Oglesby, Carl and Richard Shaull. Reacao e Mundanca. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1968.
- Pyle, Christopher. Military Surveillance of Civilian Politics, 1967-1970. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986.
- Riches, John. The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
- Schneir, Walter, ed. Telling it Like it Was: The Chicago Riots. New York: Signet Books, 1969.
- Sutton, Anthony C. How the Order Controls Education. Bullsbrook, Australia: Veritas Publishing Company PTY, Ltd., 1985.
- Sutton, Anthony C. How the Order Creates War and Revolution. Bullsbrook, Australia: Veritas Publishing Company PTY, Ltd., 1985.
- Sutton, Anthony C. An Introduction to the Order. Phoenix: Research Publications, 1983.
- Sutton, Anthony C. The Secret Cult of the Order. Bullsbrook, Australia: Veritas Publishing Company PTY, Ltd., 1983.
- Timberg, Robert. The Nightingale’s Song. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
- Wasserman, James, ed. Aleister Crowley and the Practice of the Magical Diary. Phoenix: New Falcon Publications, 1993.
- Weinberg, Bill. George Bush: The Super-Spy, Drug-Smuggling President. New York: Shadow Press, 1992
Acquired from Carl Oglesby in 2005.
Collection was processed by Dominique Tremblay and Diana Tran.
Please use the following format when citing materials from this collection:
Carl Oglesby Papers (MS 514). Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries.
- Assassination Information Bureau
- Gehlen, Reinhard, 1902-1979
- Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963--Assassination
- King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968
- Political activists
- Student movements
- Students for a Democratic Society (U.S.)
- United States--Foreign relations
- Vietnam War, 1961-1975
- Watergate Affair, 1972-1974
- Oglesby, Carl, 1935-