“The province of protozoa, reminiscent of the fertile crescent in the Middle East, straddles the highways of thought that run between the major continents of biology. Down these roads come caravans of concepts and analogies: ideas about hierarchies and taxonomies from one direction, convictions about the basic structures and functions of life from another, opinions about reproduction and development from a third, and theories of the origin and evolution of life’s forms from still another quarter. It is uncanny how these separate trains of thought intersect one another in the land of the single-celled organisms. There they interact, exchange views, and rearrange their loads before they disperse again to inform other regions of biology of their contents and conclusions. A complete history of protozoology must recognize the centrality of this terrain.”
Frederick B. Churchill. 1989. “Toward the History of Protozoology,” Journal of the History of Biology 22: 185-187.
Protistology (formerly called protozoology) is the scientific study of unicellular eukaryotes and their relatives — single cells as living organisms. Protists make up 57 of the 60 distinct “ultrastructural identities” of eukaryotes, with the macroscopic forms most familiar to us (plants, animals and fungi) nestled amongst the other three (Simpson and Patterson, 2007). An extraordinarily diverse assemblage of organisms, protists have distinctive genetic systems, numerous primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of symbiosis, and unique cytoskeletons, and they play important roles in food webs and as pathogens. Among them are some of the most serious human parasites, including the malaria parasites Plasmodium spp., Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Entamoeba and Trichomonas. Many protists, such as Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena, and Dictyostelium, have become important experimental organisms in scientific and medical research.
What do the Protistology Collections include?
The Protistology collections at UMass focus on the unique aspects of protist biology, those not found in plants, animals and fungi, but which inform our understanding of the evolution of these macroscopic lineages. In addition to having the professional papers, lab notebooks and journals of some of the leading 20th century protistologists, the collection includes the world’s primary repository of light and electron micrographs of protists. Due to the ubiquity and diversity of protists, the collections cross a broad range of disciplines and methodologies, from evolutionary biology to ecology, physiology, medicine, and public health.
The growing number of collections include the papers of:
- Greg Antipa (ciliate development)
- William Balamuth (ciliate biology)
- Lea Bleyman (ciliate genetics)
- Phyllis C. Bradbury Papers (parasitical ciliates)
- Henry James Clark (flagellates)
- David G. Chase Collection (flagellates, TEM)
- Bronislaw Honigberg (parasitic trichomonads)
- Seymour Hutner (protist nutrition)
- John Kloetzel micrograph collections (ciliate cytoskeleton)
- Paul Kugrens (cryoptophytes)
- David L. Nanney (Tetrahymena genetics and evolution)
- Hope T. Ritter (flagellate endosymbionts)
- Eugene B. Small (ciliophoran systematics and evolution)
- Arthur I. Stern (photosynthesis in Euglena)
- F.J.R. “Max” Taylor (phytoplankton)
- Peter G. Verity (phytoplankton, pelagic ecology)
- Howard C. Whisler (marine fungi)
- Christopher L. F. Woodcock (Acetabularia)
For further information, please contact the Archivists.
Simpson and Patterson, 2007. In Katz, L.A. and D. Bhattacharya, eds. Genomics and Evolution of Microbial Eukaryotes. Oxford
The SCUA staff have assembled a series of introductory guides to assist researchers in navigating through our collections. These guides provide a broad overview of our collections for the history of social change; labor, work, and industry; agriculture; and the regional history of New England, and intended for use in conjunction with the descriptions in UMarmot and our finding aids.
On the right side of this page, UMarmot includes a suite of menus to help you find what you need in our manuscript and archival collections: from top to bottom, you may search collections by entering terms in the search box; browse by general category using the drop down menu; browse our university archives; or browse all collections alphabetically by clicking on the appropriate letter.
We encourage researchers with more specialized interests or who require more in-depth work with our collections to consult with our staff.
Using the collections?
Special Collections and University Archives is open at no cost to all researchers, regardless of affiliation.
First-time researchers will be asked to register and to provide name, institutional affiliation (when applicable), and current address. At the time of registration, researchers must present a valid form of identification including a photograph.
In the reading room
- Please sign in each day at the front desk
- Only pencils and laptop computers may be used for taking notes. Please do not use pens.
- Smoking, food, and drink are not permitted
- Cell phones should be switched off or set to silent mode; calls may be taken in the adjacent elevator lobby
- Care and handling of materials
- Please use care in handling manuscripts and books to prevent damage
- Use only a single box of manuscript or archival material at a time and preserve the existing arrangement of files
- You may be permitted to photograph items for research purposes; check with a staff member first
- Scans and photocopies are made by staff members in keeping with our copying policies
- Upon leaving for the day, please notify the staff whether you are finished with your material or wish to place it on hold for a return visit
Charley Richardson Papers, ca.1985-2012.
Call no.: MS 862
A shipfitter and union activist, Charley Richardson was a visonary labor educator. After working for a time in a machine shop and driving a school bus, Richardson hired on as a shipfitter at Sun Ship in Philadelphia in 1976, and grew active in the labor movement as a steward for the United Steelworkers. After relocating to the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy seven years later, he sustained a workplace injury that ended his career, but he remained active in the workers’ cause. Helping served as director of the Labor Extension Program at UMass Lowell and helped to create the Technology and Work Program where he and his wife Nancy Lessin developed educational programs to aid unions in countering harmful workplace changes and build strength and solidarity for the union. An advocate for social and economic justice, he became a vocal opponent of the U.S. war in Iraq in 2002, and was co-founder of Military Families Speak Out. After a long battle with cancer, Richardson passed away in May 2013.
The Richardson papers document over thirty years of work as a labor educator and United Steelworkers activist. At the heart of the collection are materials relating to Richardson’s research and instruction at UMass Lowell, teaching “continuous bargaining” and other techniques for unions coping with economic and political change. The collection is informed throughout by Richardson’s concerns for workplace safety and health and the impact of technology, downsizing, deregulation, and globalization.
- Industrial safety
- Labor unions and education
- United Steelworkers of America
- University of Massachusetts at Lowell. Labor Education Prograss
- Lessin, Nancy
Susanne S. Ridlen Photograph Collection, 1985-1991.
Call no.: PH 025
A folklorist at Indiana University Kokomo for many years, Susanne S. Ridlen is noted for her research on grave markers in the Midwest. Her dissertation at Indiana University was on tombstones carved to mimic tree-stumps, a rustic form of funerary monument that enjoyed a vogue during the late nineteenth century. Ridlen’s research culminated in publication of her book Tree-Stump Tombstones: A Field Guide to Rustic Funerary Art in Indiana (Kokomo, 1999).
The Ridlen collection provides an extensive visual record of tree-stump tombstones in Indiana. Organized by county, town, and cemetery, the collection typically includes several views of each marker along with documentation of the individual(s) interred, the date of creation, inscriptions, and any other design motifs employed. These images and data form the basis for Ridlen’s Tree-Stump Tombstones.
- Sepulchral monuments--Indiana
- Association for Gravestone Studies
- Ridlen, Susanne S
Types of material
Maida L. Riggs Papers, 1932.
Call no.: FS 095
Maida Leonard Riggs, Class of 1936, taught women’s physical education at UMass before shifting to teacher preparation. Riggs was a beloved member of the UMass faculty for 28 years before her retirement. An adventurous spirit took Riggs around the globe: to Europe with the Red Cross during World War II; as a bicycling tour leader after the war; on a trek across Nepal at age 62; to Russia, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Uzbekistan. After retiring, Riggs, a self-described compulsive traveler, embarked on a more personal journey to explore her roots. Riggs transcribed over 250 letters by her pioneer great-grandmother, Mary Ann Clark Longley, and published them under the title A Small Bit of Bread and Butter: Letters from the Dakota Territory, 1832-1869, an absorbing and sometimes heartbreaking account of life on the frontier. An avid photographer, Riggs took advantage of any opportunity to use her camera. These images, particularly from World War II, tell as many stories as do her correspondence. Her book, Dancing in Paratrooper Boots, contains typed copies of her letters from her days as a Red Cross volunteer during the war.
The Riggs Papers are a rich documentary history of the World War II era, both in America and Europe, as well as an engrossing study (in transcripts) of the American frontier. Included with extensive correspondence and photographs are published and unpublished prose, and Lovingly, Lucy: Vignettes of a Pioneer Woman’s Life, an essay on Riggs’s paternal grandmother, Lucy Dodge Riggs. Additional items in the collection include handwritten journals, one detailing a trip to China and Japan in 1982, and Riggs’s photographs of young children at play taken for her book on child development, Jump to Joy: Helping Children Grow Through Active Play. Riggs also took her genealogical research seriously, meticulously charting her family’s 1638 immigration from England to Massachusetts. With camera in hand, she later traveled to England in search of more evidence of the Longley’s English roots.
- China--Description and travel
- Longley family
- Riggs family
- University of Massachusetts Amherst--Alumni and alumnae
- University of Massachusetts Amherst--Faculty
- University of Massachusetts Amherst. Department of Physical Education
- Women physical education teachers
- World War, 1939-1945
- World War, 1939-1945--Women
- Riggs, Maida L.
Types of material
Hope T. Ritter Papers, 1947-1987.
Call no.: MS 572
The protistologist Hope T. Ritter (1919-2007) is recognized for his important research on the evolution of mitosis. A native of Allentown, Pa., Ritter received his doctorate at Lehigh University in 1955 for a study of the gut fauna in a subterranean termite. Building on this research during the 1950s, he became the first scientist to successfully culture Barbulanympha, a hindgut flagellate symbiont of the wood-eating cockroach Cryptocercus, which has since become a model organism for study of the evolution of mitosis. After teaching at Harvard (1957-1961) and SUNY Buffalo, Ritter moved to the University of Georgia in 1966, where he remained until his retirement from teaching in 1987.
The Ritter Papers contain valuable professional correspondence, lab notebooks, and a large number of electron micrographs documenting his research.
- Ritter, Hope T
Types of material
- Scanning electron micrographs
Tiyo Attallah Salah-El Papers, 1890-2006.
Call no.: MS 590
While serving a life sentence in a Pennsylvania prison, Tiyo Attallah Salah-El transformed himself into an activist, scholar, and advocate for the abolition of prisons. An accomplished jazz musician, Salah-El has distinguished himself for educational and scholarly work, his musical career, his close relationship with activists and educators, and for the non-profit organization he founded, The Coalition for the Abolition of Prisons (CAP).
The Papers of Tiyo Attallah Salah-El document his experience in the State Correctional Institution in Dallas, Pennsylvania from 1977 to the present, providing information on his education, teaching, and activism. The bulk of the collection consists of his extensive correspondence with educators, musicians, and activists. Other highlights include a manuscript copy of his autobiography and the founding documents of the The Coalition for the Abolition of Prisons.
- Criminal justice, Administration of
- Jazz musicians
- Prisoners--United States
- Prisons--United States
- Ahrens, Lois
- Nagel, Mechthild
- Neill, Montgomery
- Salah-El, Tiyo Attallah
- Zinn, Howard, 1922-
Types of material
- Letters (Correspondence)
Birgit H. and Peter Satir Papers, 1970-2000.
Call no.: MS 706
Distinguished researchers in the Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Birgit and Peter Satir have made fundamental contributions to the study of exocytosis and the ultrastructure of cellular motility. While working on his doctorate at the Rockefeller Institute, Peter spent 1958 studying at the Carlsberg Biological Institute in Copenhagen, where he met Birgit. After completing their degrees in 1961 and marrying the next year, the couple went on to academic appointments at the University of Chicago and Berkeley. Although they are considered the first couple to be allowed to work in the same department at Berkeley, Birgit was never fully salaried, prompting the Satirs to move to more favorable circumstances at Einstein in 1977. Birgit’s research has centered on the nature of microdomains in cell membranes and how cells secrete chemical products, while Peter has studied the role of the structure and function of cilia and flagellae in cell motility.
The Satir collection contains professional correspondence, journals, and several thousand electron micrographs and motion picture films of ciliates and flagellates taken in the course of their research.
- Cell biology
- Satir, Birgit H.
- Satir, Peter
Types of material
- Scanning electron micrographs
Robert Ellis Smith Collection, 1938-2014 (Bulk: 1965-2014).
Call no.: MS 829
An attorney, writer, publisher, and journalist, Robert Ellis Smith is a leading expert in privacy. A graduate of Harvard (1962) and Georgetown University Law Center (1975), Smith has published
The Smith collection consists of publications and research files relating to Robert Ellis Smith’s long interest in the law and culture of privacy. In addition to a complete run of
- Privacy and identity protection
- Privacy--Law and legislation