Owner of a general store in Fair Haven, Vermont. Includes numbered accounts of customers (many with Welsh surnames), lists of items purchased, the price per measure, forms of payment (cash, goods, services, credit, making clothes), and the goods that were sold (such as fabrics, ready-made clothes, eggs and dairy products, fruits and nuts, garden seeds, cutlery and tinware, and jewelry).
Background on Richard E. Lloyd
Richard E. Lloyd was born in 1834 in Wales. By 1859 he had moved to Fair Haven, Vermont, and opened a general store. The 1860 census lists him as unmarried, boarding with townspeople. His net worth was set at $400. Over the next ten years, Lloyd’s wealth increased. By 1869 he owned three buildings on Main Street in Fair Haven: his house, the store, and a building he rented out. The 1870 census values his personal estate at $6000 and his real estate at $9000. By 1870, Lloyd had married a Welsh-born woman and had three children. His household also included his clerk, the clerk’s wife, and a servant.
The collection consists of two daybooks covering the years 1859-1865. Entries were made at the time of purchase and list items purchased, the price per measure, and payment. Most entries are headed with a name, so family and individual-buying habits are also documented. Each account is numbered, suggesting that final accounts were kept in another ledger. Account numbers as high as 533 appear in the first few pages of the first volume, indicating this was probably not Lloyd’s opening ledger.
Lloyd’s store offered a wide variety of goods: fabrics, ready-made clothes, cutlery and tinware, garden seeds, fresh fruits and nuts, eggs and dairy products, even jewelry. Most transactions were charges, with some people paying cash. Lloyd accepted both goods and services for credit. Making clothes was the most frequent means of credit. It is unclear whether these clothes were for Lloyd personally or for sale in the store.
The majority of Lloyd’s customers were Welsh, with names like Lloyd, Griffith, Morgan, and Thomas, reflecting an important development in Fair Haven’s history. In these years the town had a large Welsh population. Slate quarries, developing in the 1840s, had attracted Welsh miners from Pennsylvania and from Wales.
Women rarely appear in this ledger, although it is possible that credit goods or services were produced by women while the actual credits were listed under their husbands or fathers. Women sometimes earned credit under their own names by sewing or washing.
Acquired from: Charles Apfelbaum, 1987 and purchased from Mrs. Hudson’s Fine Books and Papers, 2011.
Processed by Lisa May, February 1989.
Encoding funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Cite as: Richard E. Lloyd Daybooks (MS 229). Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries.
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- Fair Haven (Vt. : Town)--Economic conditions--19th century
- Fair Haven (Vt. : Town)--History--19th century--Biography
- General stores--Vermont--Fair Haven
- Shopping--Vermont--Fair Haven (Town)--History--19th century
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- Lloyd, Richard E., b. 1834
Types of material