Abstract

Established by Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government, the National Endowment for the Arts has awarded more than $4 billion to support artistic excellence, creativity, and innovation for the benefit of individuals and communities. The NEA extends its work through partnerships with state arts agencies, local leaders, other federal agencies, and the philanthropic sector.

In contributing to the National Arts Policy Archive and Library (NAPAAL), the NEA has authorized SCUA to digitize nearly forty years of publications on the arts and arts management. The collection reflects the impact of the arts (including music, literature, and the performing arts) on the everyday lives of Americans and include materials intended to support individual and classroom education, information on arts management, and reports on the status of the arts, along with several histories of the organization. The collection has been organized into fourteen categories reflecting the programs and priorities of the NEA, and some titles cross-listed. All titles are catalogued in the UMass Amherst Libraries online catalog and are included in the Internet Archive, where they are available for full-text searching.

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The collection is open for research.

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English
SCUA: the archive of social change
National Endowment for the Arts Collection
1970-2013
5 boxes (7.5 linear feet)
Call no.: MS 686
Background on the NEA
NEA logo, 2013

NEA logo, 2013

Established by Congress in 1965, the National Endowment for the Arts is an independent agency of the federal government that seeks to promote the arts and contribute to the growth and development of American culture. Over its existence, the NEA has awarded more than $4 billion to support artistic excellence, creativity, and innovation for the benefit of individuals and communities. It extends its work through partnerships with state arts agencies, local leaders, other federal agencies, and the philanthropic sector.

In his recent history of the NEA, Mark Bauerlein noted that from its inception the NEA was intended "to nurture American creativity, to elevate the nation's culture, and to sustain and preserve the country's many artistic traditions." Unlike previous federal efforts to promote the arts such as the Depression-era Works Progress Administration, it was neither a response to economic crisis nor aligned with any specific social or political agenda beyond bringing art to the people of our nation and nurturing our artistic creativity.

The immediate plans for the NEA were first proposed under the administration of John F. Kennedy. In January 1963, a group of Democratic senators introduced SR165 "to establish a U.S. National Arts Foundation," and in May, one month after August Hecksher published a seminal report on "The Arts and the National Government," Hubert Humphrey introduced SR 1316 "to establish a National Council on the Arts and a National Arts Foundation to assist the growth and development of the arts in the U.S." With bi-partisan support and Hecksher's vision in place, the President's Advisory Council on the Arts was established soon thereafter.

Delayed by the assassination of the president, the arts agency took a significant step forward on December 20, 1963, when the Senate passed SR 2379, effectively combining the two previous bills. Less than three weeks later, Rep. Frank Thompson of NJ introduced two bills into the House: HR 9586 "to provide for the establishment of a National Council on the Arts to assist in the growth and development of the arts in the U.S." and HR 9587 "to provide for the establishment of a National Council on the Arts and a National Arts Foundation to assist in the growth and development of the arts in the United States." HR 9586 passed in the House on Aug. 20, with the Senate agreeing on voice vote the next day, and the bull was signed into law by Pres. Johnson on Sept. 3. When signed into law, the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act stated:

"While no government can call a great artist or scholar into existence, it is necessary and appropriate for the Federal Government to help create and sustain not only a climate encouraging freedom of thought, imagination, and inquiry, but also the material conditions facilitating the release of this creative talent."

The impact of the NEA has been both substantial and sustained. By the year 2000, the NEA reported that it had awarded over 110,000 grants to artists and arts organizations, fueling a ten-fold growth of state and local agencies, and an increase in the number of non-profit theatre companies from 56 in 1965 to 340; symphony orchestras from 980 to 1,800, and opera companies from 27 to 113.

Contents of Collection

In contributing to the National Arts Policy Archive and Library (NAPAAL), the NEA has authorized SCUA to digitize nearly forty years of publications on the arts and arts management. The collection reflects the impact of the arts (including music, literature, and the performing arts) on the everyday lives of Americans and include materials intended to support individual and classroom education, information on arts management, and reports on the status of the arts, along with several histories of the organization. The collection has been organized into fourteen categories reflecting the programs and priorities of the NEA, and some titles cross-listed.

All titles are catalogued in the UMass Amherst Libraries online catalog and are included in the Internet Archive, where they are available for full-text searching. In late 2013, the files will be made publicly available and preserved through UMass's online digital repository, Credo.

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Series descriptions
1970-2009
98 titles

The National Endowment for the Arts was established by Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government. As of 2013, the NEA has awarded more than $4 billion to support artistic excellence, creativity, and innovation for the benefit of individuals and communities. The NEA extends its work through partnerships with state arts agencies, local leaders, other federal agencies, and the philanthropic sector.

See additional information about the NEA

1985-2003
8 titles

The NEA Office for Accessibility is the advocacy-technical assistance arm of the Arts Endowment to make the arts accessible for people with disabilities, older adults, veterans, and people living in institutions.

See additional information on accessibility and the NEA.

1990-2009
115 titles

The National Endowment for the Arts is committed to providing leadership in arts education and to enhancing the quality of and access to arts education for our nation's young people.

See additional information on arts education and the NEA.

1993-2007
17 titles

American dance is encyclopedic in scope and international in its aesthetic traditions. The National Endowment for the Arts is committed to advancing the nation's full range of dance artistry.

See additional information on dance and the NEA.

1972-2013
183 titles

From the typeface on this page to the neighborhood in which you live, every object and place is the result of design. Design surrounds us and has a direct impact on the quality of our lives.

See additional information on design and the NEA.

1981-2011
49 titles

The folk and traditional arts are rooted in and reflective of the cultural life of a community. Community members may share a common ethnic heritage, cultural mores, language, religion, occupation, or geographic region. These vital and constantly reinvigorated artistic traditions are shaped by values and standards of excellence that are passed from generation to generation, most often within family and community, through demonstration, conversation, and practice.

See additional information on folk and traditional arts and the NEA.

1972-2008
86 titles

Through its literature, a nation expresses its hopes and fears, and tells its stories to its citizens and to the world. The National Endowment for the Arts is committed to providing opportunities for Americans to make literature a more important part of their daily lives.

See additional information on literature and the NEA.

1995
16 title

Media arts includes screen-based and print projects presented via film, television, radio, audio, video, the Internet, interactive and mobile technologies, video game consoles, transmedia storytelling, and satellite as well as media-related printed books, catalogues, and journals.

See additional information on media arts and the NEA.

1976-2008
83 titles

The National Endowment for the Arts supports museums and other exhibiting institutions and organizations that that exhibit, preserve, and interpret visual material through exhibitions, residencies, publications, commissions, public art works, conservation, documentation, services to the field, and public programs.

See additional information on museums and the NEA.

1987-2013
37 titles

The National Endowment for the Arts recognizes and supports a wide range of music, from classical to contemporary to America's indigenous jazz. It supports both performing ensembles and music presenting institutions including chamber music ensembles, choruses, early music programs, jazz ensembles, music festivals, and symphony orchestras.

See additional information on music and the NEA.

1972-2008
103 titles

The NEA works with more than 20 other federal agencies, state and local governments, state and regional arts agencies, and private nonprofits on projects that provide opportunities for thousands of Americans to experience quality arts programming throughout the country.

In addition to traditional presenting programs, this area supports artistic works and events that present multiple disciplines, combine and/or integrate art forms, explore boundaries between art disciplines, fuse or transcend disciplines, and look to new forms of expression.

See additional information on multidisciplinary arts and the NEA.

1977-2007
243 titles

Research into the value and impact of the arts is a core function of the National Endowment for the Arts. Through accurate, relevant, and timely analyses and reports, the NEA elucidates the factors, conditions, and characteristics of the U.S. arts ecosystem and the impact of the arts on other domains of American life.

See additional information on research and the NEA.

1981-2005
17 titles

The National Endowment for the Arts seeks to fund groundbreaking, innovative theater and musical theater in the American spirit that is bold, passionate, profound, creative, and engaging and that demonstrates serious, exceptional, and rigorous aesthetic values.

See additional information on theater and the NEA.

Collection inventory
About the NEA
1970-2013
98 titles

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2012

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2014

The 2016 Guide provides details on the programs and activities that the NEA supports, as well as funding deadlines for our various grants. Included is information on Grants for Organizations, Literature Fellowships, Lifetime Honors, and Partnerships. January 2016. 24 pp.

This eigh-panel brochure provides an overview of the agency and some of its accomplishments over the last 50 years.

This publication documents the agency's major activities since its creation by the United States Congress in 1965. Also included are overviews of the agency's impact on dance, literature, media arts, museums, music, opera, theater, and visual arts. January 2009. 310 pp.

Title: Oklahoman named to head federal architecture study

Includes: "Federal Architecture Task Force Appointed" (1973-03-27); "Grants Awarded by National Endowment for the Arts in 'City Edges' Program" (1973-04-23); "Graphics Phase of Zoo Master Plan Announced" (1973-06-28); and "City Options Program Announced" (1973-10-04).

Includes: "Endowment to Launch Design Newsletter" (1974-01-17) ; Labor Department Takes Leading Role in Upgrading Federal Graphics" (1974-03-06); "RitaSue Siegel Speaker at First Graphics Design Seminar Sponsored by NEA" (1974-04-10); "Grants in Architecture, Design Announced" (1974-06); "Briefing on Federal Design Planned for Press, Agency Heads" (1974-07-10); "National Meeting Set on Saving Old Railroad Stations" (1974-07-15); "'Design Reality' Is Theme" (1974-07-31); "National Endowment for the Arts Appoints Architect to Staff" (1974-09); "Press Advisory on Design Assembly" (1974-09-11); "Second Federal Design Assembly, Press Articles" (1974-09-11); "Grants in City Options Program Made by Endowment" (1974-09-19); "$594,000 in Grants Awarded to Foster Environmental Design" (1974-10-14).

Includes: "Movie on Federal Design Program is Available for Free" (1975-04-02); "National Meeting Set to Conserve Old Neighborhoods" (1975-07-07); "Secretary of Commerce Rogers C.B. Morton to Keynote the Federal Regional Design Assembly/Western States" (1975-09-29).

Includes: "'Streets of Washington' Exhibit Looks at Problems and Offers Solutions for This and Other Cities (1977-11-29).

Profiles of many of the NEA National Heritage Fellowship recipients from 1982 to 2011. In all, 80 Fellows are profiled, including the 12 Bess Lomax Hawes Award recipients. Also included is the NEA National Heritage Fellowships DVD-ROM, created by Documentary Arts, with photos, videos, and audio recordings of all the Heritage Fellows. NEA 2011. 90pp.

Accessibility
1985-2003
8 titles

The devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatically exposed the vulnerability of the arts and cultural sector in emergency preparedness and emergency response. To strengthen the understanding and readiness of the arts sector, an unprecedented national collaboration of arts professionals and organizations quickly came together with a call to action to form the National Coalition for Arts' Preparedness and Emergency Response (N-CAPER). This cross-disciplinary, voluntary task force is spearheaded by CERF+ (Craft Emergency Relief Fund + Artists' Emergency Resources) and Arts Ready, a service provided by South Arts, in addition to many other early partners, including Americans for the Arts and supported by the National Endowment for the Arts.

Since then, preparedness and response has broadened to embrace "Readiness and Resiliency" in recognition of the role of the arts and cultural sector in natural disasters, periods of civic unrest, and acts of terrorism and violence.

On April 19, 2016, the NEA convened a cross sector panel of experts working in this arena to outline strategies to advance this important work. A summary of the proceedings can be found here.

This report examines demographic and socio-economic characteristics of adults who attended visual and performing arts activities in 2012, but unlike prior NEA research it offers in-depth perspectives on attitudes, motivations, and barriers concerning arts attendance. Based on a NEA module to the 2012 General Social Survey (GSS). 62 pp. January 2015

Arts Education
1990-2009
115 titles

This 2002 publication is the result of a four-year collaboration between the Arts Endowment and The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Designed to strengthen arts programs directed to underserved youth, the initiative provided training in conflict resolution skills to the artists, staff, administrators, and young people participating in these programs. The National Center for Conflict Resolution Education developed and provided the training. This publication provides background on the partnership and the rationale behind blending the arts with conflict resolution. It details the nature of conflict and provides arts based activities and ideas for integrating the conflict resolution principles into all types of arts programs. The resources section includes a bibliography and descriptions of how participating programs incorporated conflict resolution principles into their daily activities. 78 pp.

This report examines arts-related variables from four large datasets -- three maintained by the U.S. Department of Education and one by the Department of Labor -- to understand the relationship between arts engagement and positive academic and social outcomes in children and young adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). Conducted by James Catterall, University of California Los Angeles, et al., the analyses show that achievement gaps between high- and low-SES groups appear to be mitigated for children and young adults who have arts-rich backgrounds. 28 pp.

This report is a literature review and gap-analysis of recent research about the arts' relationship to social-emotional benefits in early childhood. Music-based activities, drama/theater, and visual arts and crafts were among the types of arts participation studied. The review covers the period of 2000 to 2015. 30 pp.

This note draws on a report issued by the Department of Education to track college arts courses taken by the high school graduating classes of 1972, 1982, and 1992, within 8.5 years of completing high school.

Published by the Arts Education Partnership with support from the NEA. Details the relationship between learning in dance, drama, music, multiple arts, and visual arts, and the development of fundamental academic and social skills. 160 pp.

Over the course of five years, the NEA brought together teams from 29 states to collaborate on ways to strengthen states' arts education policies. The Education Leaders Institute Alumni Summit Report shares the significant findings of what the NEA, its partners, and eight participating alumni states learned together and how it informed the NEA's arts education strategic plan. This report will assist both national and state-level policymakers in understanding the catalysts to advance the arts as a core element of education.

Summary of the impact of the NEA Folk Arts Program, which begna placing folk artists in school systems in 1976.

2004
Box 2: 19a

Published by the National Endowment for the Arts, 2004. This reprint of the 1997 NEA publication revises and updates the previous edition's material on introducing children to the arts. Made for parents, the publication includes activities and suggestions in literature, dance, music, theater, visual arts, folk arts, and media arts aimed specifically at children ages 3-8 years old. Includes pull-out guide of arts activities. 68 pp.

Given the increased focus on assessment and accountability in education since the 1990s, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) identified the need to capture the current status of arts assessment. As such, the NEA commissioned WestEd to examine current trends, promising techniques, and successful practices being used to assess student learning in the arts throughout the country, as well as identify potential areas in which arts assessment could be improved.

Published by the National Endowment for the Arts, 2002. A guide to the NEA's Arts Learning initiatives includes brief descriptions of our arts learning grants, partnerships, and programs; a thumbnail history of the Endowment's involvement in arts education research; a section on successful projects and programs that the NEA has supported; and a list of arts learning partners and organizations. Altogether, the publication demonstrates the Endowment's continued commitment to arts learning for children and youth. 44 pp.

This paper accompanying release of the ACPSA preliminary estimates for 1998-2011 consists of two parts: one explains the background and inner working of the account -- including an explanation of methods used and international sources consulted -- and the other advances a new framework for understanding the arts/cultural labor force with comparable rigor, as well as how to estimate arts volunteers' contributions to the U.S. economy.

2004
Box 2: 22b

The culmination of 18 months of research, meetings with stakeholders, and site visits all over the country, this President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities report represents an in-depth review of the current condition of arts education, including an update of the current research base about arts education outcomes, and an analysis of the challenges and opportunities in the field that have emerged over the past decade. It also includes a set of recommendations to federal, state and local policymakers. May 2011. 88 pp.

In March of 2000, the Mayors' Institute on City Design convened a special session at the University of Illinois to investigate how schools can operate as catalysts for community redevelopment. This book, an outgrowth of that session and the public forum that followed it, contains essays and design projects that demonstrate the value of school-building to neighborhoods and the value of design to school-building.

2004
Box 2: 22a
Dance
1993-2007
17 titles

Using data from the 1982 Census of Service Industries, this Note reviews aggregate financial conditions of nonprofit theater, dance, and classical music organizations. Revenue/expense ratios, detailed sources of revenues, and other information are presented for the three broad groups and for the following selected fields: resident theaters (LORT), stock theaters, Off-Broadway theaters, Off-Off-Broadway theaters, children's theaters, community theaters, ballet companies, modern dance companies, symphony orchestras, opera companies, and chamber music groups.

A comparison of revenues of nonprofit and taxable dance groups, using data from the 1982 and 1987 Censuses. In addition, a detailed breakdown (ballet, modern dance, folk ethnic, and other) of nonprofit dance groups by revenues and sources.

A comparison of the taxable and nonprofit sectors of performing arts organizations (theater, music, dance) using data from the 1977, 1982, 1987 Censuses.

A comparison of revenues for nonprofit and taxable dance groups based on data from the Economic Censuses of 1992, 1987, and 1982. A detailed breakdown of nonprofit dance groups (ballet, modern, folk, ethnic, and other) by revenues and sources is also provided.

This report provides an analysis of the results of a survey of choreographers in New York, San Francisco, Chicago, and Washington, DC. The survey obtained data on working conditions, financial status, performance opportunities, and funding for choreographers in each of the cities.

This study uses newly available data to examine trends in the nonprofit dance field. Spanning the decade of the late 1980s through the late 1990s, the report looks at factors such as growth in the number of dance companies, geographic concentration, and financial aspects such as the importance of ticket sales and the effects of the 1990-1991 recession. The analysis also investigates the role the National Endowment for the Arts plays in leveraging funding for dance companies.

A comparison based on total revenues for nonprofit and taxable performing arts organizations (theater, dance, music). State and regional estimates are also provided.

Design
1972-2013
183 titles

Poster announcing forthcoming Graphic Design Studio Seminars, presented by the Federal Design Improvement Program.

"This brochure provides a listing of grants funded during Fiscal Years 1973 and 1974.

Issue with article "Federal Design Improvement Program enters its third decade"; "A letter from the Gulf"; and "Small Agency Council offers seminars."

2002 Apr. 24
Design

Brochure announcing series of lectures by "top executives and leading designers" on the impact of design in business.

Report on a study of American artists using data derived from the 1990 federal census, focusing on geography, employment, earnings, demographic background, characteristics of artists' households, and housing.

1972
Box 4: 28

A white paper based on the "Social Impact Design Summit," a convening by the Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum; the National Endowment for the Arts; and The Lemelson Foundation at The Rockefeller Foundation offices in New Yorkon February 27, 2012. Social impact design-the practice of designing for public benefit, especially in disadvantaged communities-has been garnering more attention from both professional and aspiring designers in a variety of disciplines. February 2013. 40 pp.

Flier announcing the 7th Studio Seminar for Federal Graphic Designers, Writers, Editors, and Supervisors held at the Yale University, June 24-30, 1979

Brochure announcing a system "designed to co-ordinate the visual presentation of research data in National Endowment publications."

Brochure announcing federal; search for graphic designers, illustrators, and photographers."

Brochure announcing a system "designed to co-ordinate the visual presentation of research data in National Endowment publications."

Brochure for "a public information program sponsored by the Architecture, Planning, and Design Division of the National Endowment for the Arts."

Flier announcing the 6th Studio Seminar for Federal Graphic Designers and their Editors and Supervisors held at the School of Architecture, UCLA, Mar. 25-Mar. 31, 1979, presented by the Federal Design Improvement Program.

Founded in 1986, the Mayors' Institute is a program that turns mayors into design advocates by bringing them together with top designers in intensive three-day sessions. The history of this program is best described in another NEA document, "The Mayors' Institute on City Design." In contrast, this booklet was created as a resource for mayors, but is of equal interest to anyone concerned with the creation of more livable cities. It offers guidance on using architecture, landscape architecture, art, urban design, and planning to improve the public realm.

Title: Oklahoman named to head federal architecture study

Includes: "Federal Architecture Task Force Appointed" (1973-03-27); "Grants Awarded by National Endowment for the Arts in 'City Edges' Program" (1973-04-23); "Graphics Phase of Zoo Master Plan Announced" (1973-06-28); and "City Options Program Announced" (1973-10-04).

Includes: "Endowment to Launch Design Newsletter" (1974-01-17) ; Labor Department Takes Leading Role in Upgrading Federal Graphics" (1974-03-06); "RitaSue Siegel Speaker at First Graphics Design Seminar Sponsored by NEA" (1974-04-10); "Grants in Architecture, Design Announced" (1974-06); "Briefing on Federal Design Planned for Press, Agency Heads" (1974-07-10); "National Meeting Set on Saving Old Railroad Stations" (1974-07-15); "'Design Reality' Is Theme" (1974-07-31); "National Endowment for the Arts Appoints Architect to Staff" (1974-09); "Press Advisory on Design Assembly" (1974-09-11); "Second Federal Design Assembly, Press Articles" (1974-09-11); "Grants in City Options Program Made by Endowment" (1974-09-19); "$594,000 in Grants Awarded to Foster Environmental Design" (1974-10-14).

Includes: "Movie on Federal Design Program is Available for Free" (1975-04-02); "National Meeting Set to Conserve Old Neighborhoods" (1975-07-07); "Secretary of Commerce Rogers C.B. Morton to Keynote the Federal Regional Design Assembly/Western States" (1975-09-29).

Includes: "'Streets of Washington' Exhibit Looks at Problems and Offers Solutions for This and Other Cities (1977-11-29).

Brochure on NEA program on urban renewal and urban design.

Brochure promoting a traveling exhibition on "American designed, American manufactured, American products."

1985
Box 5: 13
1983
Box 5: 53

Brochure announcing program to "strengthen visual communication the federal government by raising design standards."

In acknowledgement of the rapidly growing number of dying and abandoned shopping centers and malls across the U.S., the NEA and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars jointly sponsored this conference in February, 2000. The resulting book contains essays by Robert Fishman, Margaret Crawford, and other leading thinkers on urban and suburban culture, as well as new shopping designs by Michael Rotondi, SHoP, and Hargreaves Associates.

The Mayors' Institute on City Design is one of the Endowment's most-heralded yet little-known programs. This 24-page brochure provides a thorough overview of the Institute, including an overview by founder Joe Riley, an urban case study, testimonials from program alumni, and a listing of all Institute participants over its eighteen-year history. 24 pp.

A significant number of NEA design grants are awarded to programs in which universities engage in community outreach and design buildings and landscapes for and with the neighborhoods that surround them. The often compelling work of these partnerships inspired this book-length analysis, which includes detailed profiles of leading programs from around the country, including Design Corps, the Yale Urban Design Workshop, and Sam Mockbee's Rural Studio. (121 pp.)

"The Urban Forum at the National Building Museum is a new series of symposiums, discussions, and lectures about issues affecting the design, growth, and governance of cities and their expanded boundaries."

"The Urban Forum at the National Building Museum is a new series of symposiums, discussions, and lectures about issues affecting the design, growth, and governance of cities and their expanded boundaries."

Flier for programs on April 19-May 29, 1996. "The Urban Forum at the National Building Museum is a new series of symposiums, discussions, and lectures about issues affecting the design, growth, and governance of cities and their expanded boundaries."

This report explores industrial design, both as an occupation and as an industry tied to U.S. manufacturing and other sectors. Drawing on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau, the report highlights the number of working industrial designers and their earnings, the industries employing the greatest numbers of designers, and their geographic concentration in western and mid-western states. The report also uses data published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to show the wide variety of products incorporating industrial design, as well as the leading companies awarded design patents. Notably, the report presents an analysis of patent data that reveals industrial designers as prolific inventors. August 2013

In addition to the Mayors' Institute, the NEA is the principle funder of Your Town: The Citizens' Institute on Rural Design. This popular program has convened four workshops annually since 1991 to help smaller communities preserve their character in the face of economic and social change. One such workshop took place in November, 2000 in Cleveland, Mississippi, and focused on the traditionally African-American communities of Mound Bayou, Jonestown, and Clarksdale. This booklet contains an overview of the event, relevant essays, and design case studies from two of the communities visited.

Folk and Traditional Arts
1981-2011
49 titles

Summary of the impact of the NEA Folk Arts Program, which begna placing folk artists in school systems in 1976.

Celebrating the NEA's 35th anniversary, this publication highlights more than 50 important NEA-funded projects that made a lasting difference to communities, individuals, and organizations. NEA 2000. 80pp

Created by Paddy Bowman, Betty Carter, and Alan Govenar, this guide presents meaningful instruction for learning about a diverse array of traditional artists and art forms for students in grades 4 through 12. The many interdisciplinary curriculum suggestions in the guide are adaptable for any traditional artists, helping students better connect to their communities and cultures. An online version of the education guide is available at www.mastersoftraditionalarts.org. 2011, 80pp.

Literature
1972-2008
86 titles

Nineteen thought-provoking essays on the art of translation and its ability to help us understand other cultures and ways of thought by award-winning translators and publishers. Includes recommendations by the essayists of translations that they enjoyed reading. 88 pp. 2014

2007
Box 3: 6
2004
Box 2: 19a
2004
Box 2: 20

The publication includes a list of all the writers and translators who have received the award, as well as a brief history of the fellowship program, sidebars highlighting some of the NEA Literature Fellows, and a section on NEA Literature Fellows who have received other national awards and honors. March 2006. 60 pp.

The Operation Homecoming Guide for Writers is a new resource for troops and veterans who are participating in the current phase of Operation Homecoming: Writing the Wartime Experience. The guide features selections from the Operation Homecoming anthology paired thematically with writings by veterans of past conflicts. The guide also offers writing exercises and essays on the elements of literature--such as narrative structure, dialogue, and perspective--to help troops and veterans begin writing or refine their stories.

This report presents the results from the literature segment of the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, conducted by the Census Bureau in 2002 at the NEA's request. The survey asked more than 17,000 adults if during the previous 12 months they had read any novels, short stories, poetry or plays in their leisure time, that were not required for work or school. The report extrapolates and interprets data on literary reading and compares them with results from similar surveys carried out in 1982 and 1992.

Reading on the Rise documents a definitive increase in rates and numbers of American adults who read literature. This new growth reverses two decades of downward trends cited previously in NEA reports such as Reading at Risk and To Read or Not To Read. Reading on the Rise is based on early results from the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts.

2004
Box 2: 22b
2004
Box 2: 22a

A literary anthology of 50 poets and writers who have received NEA Literature Fellowships providing a glimpse of the tremendous vitality and diversity of contemporary American literature. NEA 1997, revised 1999. 112pp.

Media Arts
1995
16 titles

Using data from the 1982 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, this Note compares pairs of live attendance activities and electronic media activities, such as: watching on TV, listening to radio, and listening to recordings. The Note also examines the correlations between hours spent watching all TV and attending live events. The Pearson correlation coefficient is used for measuring the correlation between the 119 pairs that are considered in this Note.

Analysis of six case studies of classical music programming in radio markets in Philadelphia, Atlanta, South Florida, Jackson (Miss.), Las Vegas (Nev.), and Columbus (Ohio). "The principal focus of this study is to document the way research has been taken into account" in classical music programming decisions.

Report on developing plans to establish the American FIlm Institute. Prepared for the Committee on Film of the National Council on the Arts, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. SRI Project No. SEU-5976.

Museums and Visual Arts
1976-2008
83 titles

An in-depth analysis and examination of the current state of the nonprofit arts in America. Written by Gary O. Larson. NEA 1997. 194pp.

A comparison of total revenues for taxable and tax-exempt museums and art galleries. In addition, museum revenues are shown by region and state.

Includes national and state sales figures for retail sales of art. Also distribution of total art sales by metropolitan areas are shown for 1982 and 1987.

1972
Box 4: 28
1974
Box 4: 11

A comparison of total revenues for museums and arts galleries based on the Economic Censuses of 1992, 1987, 1982, and 1977. Estimates are also provided by region.

Music, Opera, and Jazz
1987-2013
37 titles

Features profiles of the 2011 Opera Honors recipients and of all previous honorees. With an introductory essay by Patrick J. Smith. 60 pp. October 2011

Profiles the 2013 class of NEA Jazz Masters: Mose Allison, Lou Donaldson, Lorraine Gordon, and Eddie Palmieri with brief biographies and selected discographies. January 2013. 16 pp.

Profiles the 2014 class of NEA Jazz Masters: Jamey Aebersold, Anthony Braxton, Richard Davis, and Keith Jarrett, with brief biographies and selected discographies. January 2014. 24 pp.

Profiles the 2015 class of NEA Jazz Masters: Carla Bley, George Coleman, Charles Lloyd, and Joe Segal with brief biographies and selected discographies. April 2015. 16 pp.

Using data from the 1982 Census of Service Industries, this Note reviews aggregate financial conditions of nonprofit theater, dance, and classical music organizations. Revenue/expense ratios, detailed sources of revenues, and other information are presented for the three broad groups and for the following selected fields: resident theaters (LORT), stock theaters, Off-Broadway theaters, Off-Off-Broadway theaters, children's theaters, community theaters, ballet companies, modern dance companies, symphony orchestras, opera companies, and chamber music groups.

Drawing on a variety of data sources and analyses, this note addresses access to classical radio. It examines key classical radio characteristics, including trends in station counts and listening hours, as well as the finances of classical radio.

This publication by the NEA and Chorus America presents brief biographies, selected works, and selected recordings for 29 of America's greatest choral composers. Includes an overview of the initiative and a brief narrative on choral music in America. September 2006. 40 pp.

A white paper based on the "Beyond the Building: Performing Arts and Transforming Place" convening which was held by the National Endowment for the Arts with support from ArtPlace America in November 2014. The convening focused on developing a better understanding of how performance-based organizations, and the artists they engage, use the term creative placemaking and transform places through their artistic practices. 66 pp.

Analysis of six case studies of classical music programming in radio markets in Philadelphia, Atlanta, South Florida, Jackson (Miss.), Las Vegas (Nev.), and Columbus (Ohio). "The principal focus of this study is to document the way research has been taken into account" in classical music programming decisions.

A comparison of the revenues of taxable and nonprofit classical music organizations, using data from the 1982 and 1987 Censuses. Nonprofit organizations divided into opera, symphony, chamber music, and no designation.

A comparison of the taxable and nonprofit sectors of performing arts organizations (theater, music, dance) using data from the 1977, 1982, 1987 Censuses.

A comparison of revenues for taxable and nonprofit classical music organizations based on data from the Economic Censuses of 1992, 1987, and 1982. Revenue information is provided for opera, symphony, and chamber music organizations.

Profiles NEA Jazz Masters from 1982 to 2012 with brief biographies and selected discographies for all 124 honorees. Includes an essay on the 30th anniversary of the program by NEA Jazz Master Dan Morgenstern, and an audio CD of NEA-produced Jazz Moments, radio shorts of interviews with NEA Jazz Masters. January 2012. 136 pp.

2008
Box 2: 18

A comparison based on total revenues for nonprofit and taxable performing arts organizations (theater, dance, music). State and regional estimates are also provided.

Partnership Programs
1972-2008
103 titles

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2014

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2015

The 2016 Guide provides details on the programs and activities that the NEA supports, as well as funding deadlines for our various grants. Included is information on Grants for Organizations, Literature Fellowships, Lifetime Honors, and Partnerships. January 2016. 24 pp.

Profiles the 2016 class of NEA Jazz Masters: Gary Burton, Wendy Oxenhorn, Pharoah Sanders, and Archie Shepp with brief biographies and selected discographies. April 2016. 28 pp.

This eigh-panel brochure provides an overview of the agency and some of its accomplishments over the last 50 years.

This report is a literature review and gap-analysis of recent research about the arts' relationship to social-emotional benefits in early childhood. Music-based activities, drama/theater, and visual arts and crafts were among the types of arts participation studied. The review covers the period of 2000 to 2015. 30 pp.

A white paper based on the "Beyond the Building: Performing Arts and Transforming Place" convening which was held by the National Endowment for the Arts with support from ArtPlace America in November 2014. The convening focused on developing a better understanding of how performance-based organizations, and the artists they engage, use the term creative placemaking and transform places through their artistic practices. 66 pp.

2007
Box 3: 6

This report summarizes themes and trends emerging from psychological and neurobiological studies of creativity. It explores models for trans-disciplinary research collaborations and it foregrounds artistic creation as a process worthy of more rigorous study. Based on a two-day workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico in July 2014, the report also discusses the urgency of such research for broader societal gains. 43 pp.

The devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatically exposed the vulnerability of the arts and cultural sector in emergency preparedness and emergency response. To strengthen the understanding and readiness of the arts sector, an unprecedented national collaboration of arts professionals and organizations quickly came together with a call to action to form the National Coalition for Arts' Preparedness and Emergency Response (N-CAPER). This cross-disciplinary, voluntary task force is spearheaded by CERF+ (Craft Emergency Relief Fund + Artists' Emergency Resources) and Arts Ready, a service provided by South Arts, in addition to many other early partners, including Americans for the Arts and supported by the National Endowment for the Arts.

Since then, preparedness and response has broadened to embrace "Readiness and Resiliency" in recognition of the role of the arts and cultural sector in natural disasters, periods of civic unrest, and acts of terrorism and violence.

On April 19, 2016, the NEA convened a cross sector panel of experts working in this arena to outline strategies to advance this important work. A summary of the proceedings can be found here.

2008
Box 2: 18
2004
Box 2: 22b

The Summit on Creativity and Aging is a new report looks at how the federal government can leverage the arts to foster healthy aging and inclusive design for this growing population. This white paper features recommendations from the May 2015 Summit on Creativity and Aging in America, a convening of more than 70 experts hosted by the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Center for Creative Aging. The paper highlights recommendations on healthy aging, lifelong learning in the arts, and age-friendly community design. The summit was a precursor to the 2015 White House Conference on Aging, which addressed four major issues: retirement security, long-term services and supports, healthy aging, and elder abuse. 48 pp.

2004
Box 2: 22a
Presenting and Multidisciplinary Arts
1972
1 title
Research
1977-2007
243 titles

Information from the 1982 Economic Census is analyzed in terms of numbers of retail art dealers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in the 19 largest metropolitan areas. The information presented includes numbers of retail art dealers in each political subdivision and their sales in terms of art, artist materials and supplies, and other merchandise.

Presents highlights from a national survey of 12,349 adults that measures participation in arts activities through 1) attendance at live events b) watching or listening through broadcast and recorded media and c) personal performance or creation of art.

This report describes the results of the 1997 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA). In addition to attendance at arts activities and participation through broadcast and recorded media, the report covers geographic and demographic differences in participation, arts socialization, music preferences and other leisure activities as well as background information on the history of the SPPA and changes introduced in 1997.

Presents highlights from a national survey of 17,135 adults that measures participation in arts activities through 1) attendance at live events; 2) watching or listening through broadcast and recorded media; and 3) personal performance or creation of art.

This report describes U.S. adult arts participation in 2002. It shows attendance at live arts events (such as concerts, plays, and dance performances), as well as the number and percentage of adults visiting art museums and reading literature. The survey also investigates arts participation through broadcast and recorded media, the Internet, and personal participation such as singing in choirs or making photographs. In addition, the report discusses demographic and geographic differences in arts participation, and compares 2002 rates to those found in 1982 and 1992.

This report describes U.S. adult arts participation in 2008. It shows attendance at live arts events (such as concerts, plays, and dance performances), as well as the number and percentage of adults visiting art museums and reading literature. The survey also investigates arts participation through broadcast and recorded media, the Internet, and personal participation such as singing in choirs or making photographs. In addition, the report discusses demographic and geographic differences in arts participation, compares 2008 rates to those found in 1982, 1992, and 2002, and summarizes 2008 results by art form.

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2012

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2013

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2014

Highlights of NEA activities during Fiscal Year 2015

Information from the 1982 Census of Service Industries provides an overview of independent performing arts organizations, both the for-profit (taxable) and nonprofit (tax-exempt). Categories included are: producers of live theatrical productions; dance groups; classical music organizations; and a remainder category for all other live performing arts organizations. Data is presented for numbers and receipts of these organizations for 1977 as well as 1982. In addition, this note contains information about aggregate financial data and about changes of each receipts/revenues line item from 1977 to 1982 for the average (typical) nonprofit theatrical producer, dance group, and classical music organization.

This report synthesizes findings across several modes of arts participation (attending the visual and performing arts, reading literature, creating/performing art, using digital media to consume art, and learning within the arts) to show how many American adults--and from which backgrounds--have engaged in art throughout the decade of 2002 to 2012. Based on the NEA's Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA), conducted in partnership with the U.S. Census Bureau.

Based on the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts conducted in 1982, 1992, and 1997, this study examines the aging of arts audiences and the role that age plays in predicting arts attendance. This report looks at trends in the average age of arts audiences and follows the participation rates of birth cohorts (e.g., the "Great Depression" cohort and early-baby boomers) across the survey years. In addition, the study uses regression analysis to suggest that age (in-and-of itself) is not the most important factor in determining arts attendance. Among several economic and demographic variables analyzed, education is the best predictor of arts participation.

Mark Stern, University of Pennsylvania, analyzes the relationship between age and arts participation in the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts data for 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2008. The report concludes that age and year of birth are poor predictors of arts participation and that the age distribution of art-goers now generally mirrors that of the U.S. adult population.

Data from the 1982 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts is analyzed in terms of desire for increased participation in the following arts activities: attending jazz, classical music, musical plays/ operetta, non-musical plays, opera and ballet performances and visiting art museums and galleries. Age is the control variable and is broken down into seven age groups. This Note also includes data on barriers to increased participation and these are broken down into four age groups.

Drawing on a variety of data sources and analyses, this note addresses access to classical radio. It examines key classical radio characteristics, including trends in station counts and listening hours, as well as the finances of classical radio.

Using data from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics American Time Use Survey (ATUS), Note #106 examines state-level arts participation by gauging how Americans spend an average day.

This 2002 publication is the result of a four-year collaboration between the Arts Endowment and The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Designed to strengthen arts programs directed to underserved youth, the initiative provided training in conflict resolution skills to the artists, staff, administrators, and young people participating in these programs. The National Center for Conflict Resolution Education developed and provided the training. This publication provides background on the partnership and the rationale behind blending the arts with conflict resolution. It details the nature of conflict and provides arts based activities and ideas for integrating the conflict resolution principles into all types of arts programs. The resources section includes a bibliography and descriptions of how participating programs incorporated conflict resolution principles into their daily activities. 78 pp.

Data from the 2008 SPPA show that American adults who attend art museums or live art performances are far more likely than non-attendees to vote, volunteer, or take part in other community events. Arts participants also show a greater likelihood of involvement in sports, collaborative art-making, and taking their children to performances.

Figures from the Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census make it possible to view trends in artists employment in light of those observed among all professional and technical workers.

Update using the data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1983. Includes analysis and comparison for 1975, 1980 - 1982 for the occupations of actors, architects, authors, dancers, designers, musicians/composers, painters/sculptors, photographers, radio/TV announcers, teachers of art, drama and music, and other artists not elsewhere classified.

An update for the year 1983 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1984. Also includes information on the revision of the Occupational Classification System, used for the first time by BLS in 1983.

Updating information for the year 1984 from the annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1985.

An update for the year 1985 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1986.

An update for the year 1986 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1987.

An update for the year 1987 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1988.

An update for the year 1988 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1989. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1983 to 1988.

An update for the year 1989 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1990. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1983 to 1989.

An update for the year 1990 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1991. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1983 to 1990.

An update for the year 1991 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1992. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1985 to 1991.

This is an annual update of employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment in 11 artist occupations described in the note grew by 6% from 1991 to 1992. The unemployment rate in artist occupations also grew from 1991 to 1992 increasing from 5.3% to 5.7%.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there was virtually no growth in artist employment from 1993 to 1994. The number of artists employed in 1994 stood at 1,622,000, only 1,000 more than in 1993.

This report examines employment and earnings trends in artist occupations from 1970 to 1990 using a variety of databases, including both large scale Federal surveys and smaller targeted surveys of artists groups. Alper, Wassall, Jeffri, Greenblatt, Kay, Butcher, and Chartrand.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment in artist occupations grew to nearly 2 million. Seventy thousand more artists were employed in one of eleven artist occupations in 1998 than in 1997.

Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) show that more than 2 million people were employed (in primary jobs) as artists in 1999 - a gain of 76,000 workers over the 1998 figure. An additional 298,000 people held secondary jobs in artist occupations. This note also features a section on earnings and projected employment growth for select artist occupations taken from the BLS' Occupational Outlook Handbook..

Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) show that more than 2 million people were employed (in primary jobs) as artists in 2000 -- a gain of 10,000 workers over the 1999 figure. An additional 295,000 people held secondary jobs in artist occupations. This note also features a section on earnings and projected employment growth for select artist occupations taken from the BLS' Occupational Outlook Handbook.

Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) show that more than 2.1 million people were employed (in primary jobs) as artists in 2001 -- a gain of 72,000 workers over the 2000 figure. An additional 315,000 people held secondary jobs in artist occupations. This note also features a section on earnings and projected employment growth for select artist occupations taken from the BLS' Occupational Outlook Handbook.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that, in 2003, job market conditions weakened for the civilian work force and for most workers in artist occupations. In 2003, 8 million civilian workers were unemployed, representing 5.6 percent of the labor force. The 2003 unemployment rate for artists reached 6.1 percent (128,000 workers), up from 5.5 percent in 2002.

The 2005 labor market improved for the civilian work force and for most workers in artist occupations. Employment in artist jobs grew to 2.1 million workers, while the artist unemployment rate declined from 5.1% in 2004 to 4.4% in 2005

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the total number employed in eleven artist occupation groups grew from 1.6 to 1.8 million from 1995 to 1996.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment in artist occupations in 1997 continued to grow faster than in professional occupations as a whole (3.7% versus 2.6%). Total employment in the eleven artist occupations stood at 1.9 million in 1997.

Drawing from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook: 2010-11 Edition, Research Note #103 discusses job prospects for artists and other selected cultural occupations from 2008 to 2018.

This note reports the state location of workers in 11 detailed artist occupations. It examines the state concentration of artists as a share of the total civilian labor force, and state patterns in the location of individual artist occupations.

Note #105 uses multiyear averages from the American Community Survey (2005-2009) to enumerate the nation's artists and to describe their demographic traits, work patterns, and nationwide concentration. The Note also explores links between individual artist occupations and specific industries, and it reports occupational and industry patterns for workers who obtained arts-related degrees in college. Finally, the Note identifies state and metropolitan-level concentrations of employment within arts industries.

Census data compared with the 1976 Survey of Income and Education to reveal the changes in the size and composition of America's artist population during the 1970s.

An addendum to Research Note #97, which examines figures from 2009 as well as 2008 and the impact of the second year of the recession on artists.

Artists are facing sharp increases in unemployment. In the fourth quarter of 2008, the artist unemployment rate reached 6.0 percent for a total of 129,000 unemployed artists

This note provides estimates based on the 1990 Census of Population for artist labor forces in the 30 metropolitan areas with the largest number of artists. The note also provides information on the 10 metropolitan areas with the highest concentration of artists in their labor forces.

Analysis of data from the 1980 Census of Population for the 60 largest Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas where 65% of the American artist labor force lived in 1980.

Artists in the Workforce: 1990-2005 is the first nationwide look at artists' demographic and employment patterns in the 21st century. Artists in the Workforce analyzes working artist trends, gathering new statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau to provide a comprehensive overview of this workforce segment and its maturation over the past 30 years, along with detailed information on specific artist occupations.

This report examines employment and earnings trends in artist occupations from 1970 to 1990 using a variety of databases, including both large scale Federal surveys and smaller targeted surveys of artists groups. Alper, Wassall, Jeffri, Greenblatt, Kay, Butcher, and Chartrand.

This note reports information from the 1990 Census of Population on artist occupations. The artist labor force in 11 occupations totaled 1,671,278 in 1990 -- a 54% increase from 1980. The note provides information on the size of the individual artist occupation labor forces as reported in the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses.

Analysis of data from the 1980 Census of Population covering increases in the artist labor force for the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Median earnings are compared for artists in each of the eleven occupations for 1969 and 1979, the reference years used in the 1970 and 1980 Censuses. The Note contains both actual dollar earnings and constant dollar earnings (adjusted for inflation) and compares median women artist earnings in each of the occupations with those of men in both 1969 and 1979.

This research paper explores the compelling link between arts participation and broader civic and community involvement, as measured by the NEA's Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. The report also reveals that young adults show declines in participation rates for most arts and civic categories.

Considers how broadcasting executives understand the phrase "arts and cultural programming" shows how audience, scheduling, and funding for such programs compare with those for other types of programs and indicates what kinds of arts programs would be welcomed by broadcasters if available.

In March 2011, the National Endowment for the Arts and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services hosted a first-of-its-kind event to showcase and discuss recent research on the arts and human development. The one-day forum examined the relationship between the arts and positive health and educational outcomes at various segments of the lifespan -- from early childhood, to youth and adolescence, to older adult populations. This white paper summarizes major themes from the forum, and highlights related studies. It also makes recommendations toward establishing a long-term federal partnership to promote research and evidence-sharing nationwide. 38 pp.

Analysis of the 2002 SPPA shows that arts participants, adults who read literature, listened to classical or jazz radio, or attended a performing arts event, were more likely than non-arts participants to engage in other leisure activities such as attending sporting events and doing volunteer or charity work

Note #104 uses data from the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to examine the value added by selected cultural industries to the U.S. economy.

This report is a literature review and gap-analysis of recent research about the arts' relationship to social-emotional benefits in early childhood. Music-based activities, drama/theater, and visual arts and crafts were among the types of arts participation studied. The review covers the period of 2000 to 2015. 30 pp.

Based on data from the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis, consumer expenditures for admissions to performing arts events in 1993 amount to $5.5 billion, 6% more than in 1992

Based on data from the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis, consumer expenditures for admissions to performing arts events in 1992 amounted to $5.1 billion, or 8% more than in 1991.

This annual update of information from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis indicates consumer expenditures for admissions to performing arts events in 1991 amounted to $4.7 billion a .3% decline from 1990. This marked the first year-to-year decline in admission receipts for performing arts events in five years.

Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis show that consumers spent $10.2 billion on admissions to performing arts events in 1999. This total was $2.8 billion more than consumers spent at movie theaters and $2 billion more than spending at spectator sports events.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis reports that consumers spent $10.6 billion on admissions to performing arts events. This amount was $1.9 billion more than outlays for tickets to movie theaters and $500 million more than spending on admissions to spectator-sports events.

Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis show that consumers spent $9.4 billion on admissions to performing arts events in 1998. This total was $2.6 billion more than consumers spent at movie theaters and $1.8 billion more than spending at spectator sports events.

Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis show that consumers spent $9.8 billion on admissions to performing arts events in 2000. This total was $1.7 billion greater than admissions to movie theaters and $500 million more than spending on spectator sports.

Based on data from the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis, consumer expenditures for admission to performing arts events in 1997 amounted to $10 billion or about 1.6 times more than spending on admissions to motion pictures or spectator sports.

Based on data from the U.S. Department of Commmerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis, consumer expenditures for admission to performing arts events in 1996 amounted to $9 billion or about 1.5 times more than spending on admissions to motion pictures or spectator sports.

This annual update of information from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis takes into account the latest revisions to the Bureau's input/output model that is used for measuring national productivity. It also reflects a shift from gross national product (GNP) to gross domestic product (GDP) as the primary measure of production

This update of information in Notes #1 and #6, adds data and analysis covering the years 1983 and 1984.

This annual update of information from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis presents new data for 1987 and revises some data for 1985 and 1986 that was reported in Note #28. In addition to the updating material, similar to that in the previous Notes about the GNP, several important findings with regard to the composition of this data series are described.

This annual update of information from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis presents new data for 1989 and revises data for 1987 and 1988 that was reported in Note #32.

This annual update of information from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis presents new data for 1988 and revises some data for 1986 and 1987 that was reported in Note #30.

An update of information contained in Research Division Note #1, providing both data for 1982 and certain revisions for 1979, 1980 and 1981.

An update of information on the arts in the GNP that takes into account the introduction of a new input/output model of the U.S. economy. New estimates are provided for 1985 and the estimates for 1982 - 84 are updated utilizing the new model as well as more up-to-date data.

This annual update of information from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis presents new data for 1986 and revises some data for 1984 and 1985 that was reported in Note #20. In addition to the updating material, similar to that in the previous Notes about the GNP, an additional analysis is included for the first time in terms of per capita expenditures. This new analysis is presented in the form of a table showing current and constant dollar per capita expenditures for five recreation components of the GNP for 1983 - 1986.

Gross National Product (GNP) data for 1976 - 1981 with analysis of trends on the components for: admissions to nonprofit theaters, opera and other entertainments of nonprofit institutions; admissions to motion picture theaters; purchases of books and maps; purchases of radio and TV receivers, records and musical instruments; and admissions to spectator sports.

Highlights differences in arts participation across 9 regions, 10 individual states and 4 metropolitan areas based on the results of the 1997 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts.

Two studies conducted in thirteen states provide data on southern leisure activities that reveal extraordinarily high involvement in choral and choir music and indicate that southern participation in arts-related activities will increase in the future.

This report describes the demographic characteristics of U.S. adults that participated in the arts (such as concerts, plays, and dance performances) via electronic media (e.g., TV, radio, computers and portable media devices) in 2008, based on the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA). Separately, the report examines broad categories of arts participation via Internet. The report also investigates factors contributing to the likelihood of some Americans experiencing art through media. Finally, the report considers the relationship between media-based arts activities and other types of arts participation, such as live attendance and personal arts creation.

Using data from the 1982 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, this Note compares pairs of live attendance activities and electronic media activities, such as: watching on TV, listening to radio, and listening to recordings. The Note also examines the correlations between hours spent watching all TV and attending live events. The Pearson correlation coefficient is used for measuring the correlation between the 119 pairs that are considered in this Note.

Marketing strategies applied to the problem of turning marginal arts attenders into regular patrons show pitfalls in some traditional promotional techniques and underscore the importance of life-style analysis in relation to arts attendance. Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Memphis, and Columbia (South Carolina) are studied.

Evaluates the methods and relative effectiveness of 270 completed audience studies and considers the implications of their collective findings.

An updated and expanded version of Resources for Recovery: Post-Disaster Aid for Cultural Institutions. Includes summary descriptions and contact information for 15 federal grant and loan programs and covers sources of federal assistance for preparedness, mitigation, and response, as well as for recovery. Sample projects in disaster planning, training, treatment research, and restoration illustrate the funding guidelines.

Report authors Jennifer Novak-Leonard and Alan Brown of WolfBrown explore patterns of arts engagement across three modes: arts creation or performance, arts engagement through media, and attendance at arts activities. The report highlights the overlap in participation across modes, and examines factors that drive participation within and between modes.

Analysis of six case studies of classical music programming in radio markets in Philadelphia, Atlanta, South Florida, Jackson (Miss.), Las Vegas (Nev.), and Columbus (Ohio). "The principal focus of this study is to document the way research has been taken into account" in classical music programming decisions.

A comparison of revenues of nonprofit and taxable dance groups, using data from the 1982 and 1987 Censuses. In addition, a detailed breakdown (ballet, modern dance, folk ethnic, and other) of nonprofit dance groups by revenues and sources.

A comparison of revenues for nonprofit and taxable theaters, using the 1982 and 1987 Census results. Distribution of revenue by source (private, public, admission, etc.) for each type of theater is also provided.

A comparison of the revenues of taxable and nonprofit classical music organizations, using data from the 1982 and 1987 Censuses. Nonprofit organizations divided into opera, symphony, chamber music, and no designation.

A comparison of total revenues for taxable and tax-exempt museums and art galleries. In addition, museum revenues are shown by region and state.

Includes national and state sales figures for retail sales of art. Also distribution of total art sales by metropolitan areas are shown for 1982 and 1987.

A comparison of the taxable and nonprofit sectors of performing arts organizations (theater, music, dance) using data from the 1977, 1982, 1987 Censuses.

This report describes the breadth and depth of folk and traditional arts activity in the U.S. and how it is increasing in both the variety of cultural worlds involved and the level of activity. NEA 1996. 96 pp.

A special study by the Bureau of the Census revised estimates of the 1970 Census in the light of the 1980 Occupational Classification System. The results of this special study were used in the preparation of this Note to compare 1970 with 1980 for all artist occupations in terms of numbers of the labor forceand of men and women. Among other things, the adjustments increase the base of women in some of the artist occupations, particularly designers, as a result of in-transfers from occupational groups that were not previously considered in the artist cluster of occupations.

This note draws on a report issued by the Department of Education to track college arts courses taken by the high school graduating classes of 1972, 1982, and 1992, within 8.5 years of completing high school.

Attendance at performing arts events and art museums is greater in urbanized areas. However, urban and rural residents generally participate in the "informal arts" (activities often unaffiliated with for-profit and nonprofit arts organizations) at similar rates.

Data and analysis aimed at understanding the conditions of professional theatre in America and the evolving relationship between commercial and nonprofit theater. Contains advisory panel's recommendations for changes in public policy.

Consumer expenditures on arts performances reached $12.7 billion, but when adjusted for inflation, year-over-year spending held steady. For other spectator events, inflation-adjusted ("real") spending declined from 2004 levels.

A comparison of the taxable and nonprofit sectors of performing arts organizations (theater, music, dance) using data from the Economic Censuses of 1992, 1987, 1982, and 1977.

Report on a study of American artists using data derived from the 1990 federal census, focusing on geography, employment, earnings, demographic background, characteristics of artists' households, and housing.

Detailed survey of 1,218 craft artist organizations in all parts of the United States with data on size, location, media preferences, membership screening facilities, staffing, expenses, and funding.

Reports on the attendance rates of various demographic groups at arts events/activities based on the 2002 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) and makes comparisons to similar data from the 1992 SPPA.

Reports on the attendance rates of various demographic groups at arts events/activities based on the 1997 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts and makes comparisons of their distribution among all attendees in 1997 to that in 1992.

Concentrates on the differences in the rate of participation through attendance at arts activities by demographic variables.

Concentrates on the difference in arts participation through the use of Broadcast and Recorded Media

A general method for estimating the effects of arts and cultural institutions on the economic environment of their communities.

Analysis and comparison of how money flows between arts and cultural institutions and local economy through institutional, staff, and audience expenditures and municipal and state revenues and support. Columbus, Minneapolis/St. Paul, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, and Springfield (Illinois) are studied.

Over the course of five years, the NEA brought together teams from 29 states to collaborate on ways to strengthen states' arts education policies. The Education Leaders Institute Alumni Summit Report shares the significant findings of what the NEA, its partners, and eight participating alumni states learned together and how it informed the NEA's arts education strategic plan. This report will assist both national and state-level policymakers in understanding the catalysts to advance the arts as a core element of education.

Census data and Bureau of Labor statistics findings charted to compare employment and unemployment among various kinds of artists and the general labor force.

This Note is the first of a three part presentation of information from the 1982 Census of Service Industries about the location of performing arts organizations (excluding motion picture companies) in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. It examines the 8,322 performing arts organizations in terms of nonprofit (tax-exempt) and forprofit (taxable) organizations, their revenues/receipts, and their state locations.

This Note is the second part of the presentation of information from the 1982 Census of Service Industries about the location of performing arts organizations. It subdivides performing arts organizations into four groups in both the nonprofit and for-profit sectors: (1) producers of theatrical productions, (2) dance groups, (3) classical music organizations, and (4) all other performing arts organizations; and then presents information on the average size of organizations in these four groups in the states and in the four major regions of the U.S

This Note is the third and final in the presentation of information from the 1982 Census of Service Industries about the location of performing arts organizations. It presents information on seventeen selected fields of performing arts. These fields are: (1) resident theaters (LORT contracts), (2) stock theaters, (3) Broadway productions and road shows, (4) Off-Broadway productions, (5) Off-Off-Broadway productions, (6) children's theaters, (7) dinner theaters, (8) community theaters, (9) ballet companies, (10) modern dance companies, (11) folk/ethnic dance companies, (12) symphony orchestras, (13) opera companies, (14) chamber music groups, (15) jazz music groups, (16) choral music groups, and (17) dance or stage bands or orchestras.

This report presents results from an initial analysis of the 2012 SPPA. It contains statistics with demographic insights about U.S. adults' participation across five modes of art activity: attending; reading books and literature; consuming through electronic media; making and sharing; and learning. Findings are discussed for specific art forms and trend data provided where possible. Also includes links to additional data and resources for researchers.

How do you measure how art works - on people, on communities, or on society? It's a broad question, and the National Endowment for the Arts offers an ambitious plan to "map" the arts to better understand and measure this complex, dynamic system. How Art Works describes the agency's five-year research agenda, framed and informed by a groundbreaking "system map" and measurement model. The map is grounded in the theory that arts engagement contributes to quality of life in a virtuous cycle from the individual level to the societal level, and back. The map helps illustrate the dynamic, complex interactions that make up this particular system, from "inputs" such as education and arts infrastructure, to "outcomes" such as benefits of the arts to individuals and communities. The NEA developed the map through a series of dialogues with researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the arts, economics, education, health, and other fields. September 2012. 46 pp.

This report summarizes themes and trends emerging from psychological and neurobiological studies of creativity. It explores models for trans-disciplinary research collaborations and it foregrounds artistic creation as a process worthy of more rigorous study. Based on a two-day workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico in July 2014, the report also discusses the urgency of such research for broader societal gains. 43 pp.

This report provides a comprehensive overview of the diverse network of public and private funders that directly and indirectly support the arts in the U.S. It explains the role of the National Endowment for the Arts and other public partners at the federal, state, and local levels as well as that of private partners, such as foundations, corporations, and individuals. 26 pp.

Given the increased focus on assessment and accountability in education since the 1990s, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) identified the need to capture the current status of arts assessment. As such, the NEA commissioned WestEd to examine current trends, promising techniques, and successful practices being used to assess student learning in the arts throughout the country, as well as identify potential areas in which arts assessment could be improved.

Compares government arts expenditures in the U.S. with the spending levels of Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom.

This report is based on seven case studies that complement data from an online, national survey of outdoor arts festivals. The case studies offer a rich perspective on seven distinctive festivals, their sponsoring organizations, and their artists, volunteers, and audiences.

This report combines key results from two investigative efforts -- an online, national survey of outdoor arts festivals and seven case studies -- to examine the range and variety of arts festivals in the U.S., the artists they employ, the communities they serve, and the roles they play in our cities, towns, and neighborhoods. The survey collected, for the first time, comprehensive data on a large cross-section of U.S. arts festivals, including information about audiences, arts programming, budgets, and operating structure.

The executive summary of the report on key results from two investigative efforts--an online, national survey of outdoor arts festivals and seven case studies--to examine the range and variety of arts festivals in the U.S., the artists they employ, the communities they serve, and the roles they play in our cities, towns, and neighborhoods. The survey collected, for the first time, comprehensive data on a large cross-section of U.S. arts festivals, including information about audiences, arts programming, budgets, and operating structure. October 2010 16 pp.

Results of surveys of careers and opinions of senior administrators of U.S. art museums, symphony orchestras, resident theaters, and local arts agencies conducted and analyzed by Paul DiMaggio, Yale University.

This report summarizes a June 2014 symposium held at the Gallup Headquarters in Washington, DC, in partnership with the UK's Arts & Humanities Research Council. Cultural researchers, practitioners, and policymakers from the U.S., the UK, and other countries met to review common assumptions, techniques, and challenges in measuring cultural engagement. The report offers expert guidance on how those measurements can refined and made more relevant to different stakeholder groups. 60 pps

Census data analyzed to describe the sex and minority makeup of our artist population.

A comparison of total revenues for museums and arts galleries based on the Economic Censuses of 1992, 1987, 1982, and 1977. Estimates are also provided by region.

A thumbnail history of the first 35 years of the federal government's support for the arts and the achievements of the NEA since its inception. NEA 2000. 96pp.

This paper accompanying release of the ACPSA preliminary estimates for 1998-2011 consists of two parts: one explains the background and inner working of the account -- including an explanation of methods used and international sources consulted -- and the other advances a new framework for understanding the arts/cultural labor force with comparable rigor, as well as how to estimate arts volunteers' contributions to the U.S. economy.

An analysis of a report released in January 1986 by the Internal Revenue Service using information from nonprofit charitable organizations on Form 990. The data reflects an analysis of 75,738 filers for the tax year of 1982.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis reports that consumers spent $12.1 billion ($42 per person) on admissions to performing arts events in 2002. This amount was $2.5 billion more than spending on tickets to movie theaters, but $1.5 billion less than outlays on admissions to sporting events.

A comparison of total revenues for nonprofit and taxable performing arts (theater, music, dance) based on the Economic Censuses of 1992, 1987, 1982, and 1977. State and regional estimates are also provided.

This Note examines data collected in the 982 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts in terms of such barriers to greater arts attendance as 'art form not available' and 'too far to go'. The Note relates these barriers to two different schema for describing urbanicity: urban/rural place, and metropolitan/ outside metropolitan areas. 40.6 million adults were projected to have one or both of these barriers.

Results from the 1982 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts are analyzed in terms of the location of the residence of the participating and non-participating publics. Data is presented for the following arts activities: attending jazz, classical music, musical plays/operetta, non-musical plays, opera, and ballet; and visiting art museums and galleries for the public living on rural farms, on rural non-farms, in metropolitan areas, outside metropolitan areas, and in the eight large cities -- New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Detroit, Boston, and Baltimore/Washington. Comments are made about participation rates in each of these urban locations and for each one of the art forms.

This note provides information on arts participation in four different geographical regions and the metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, New York, and Baltimore/Washington, D.C. Based on data compiled from the 1992 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) which was conducted for the Endowment by the U.S. Census Bureau. (See also: NEA Research Division Report #27.)

This Note summarizes the data collected in the Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts in 1982 and in 1985. The Note describes the 22 activities or participation measures that had statistically significant changes (95% confidence level) between 1982 and 1985. Such changes occurred for attendance at performances of classical music, opera performances, and performances of musical plays or operettas; visits to art or craft fairs or festivals; participation in the arts by the media (particularly jazz music, classical music, plays [non-musical], and ballet); and also for preferences for various musics (particularly soul/blues, country-western, rock, mood/easy listening, hymns/gospel, and other [mostly ethnic]).

Presents highlights from the 1992 and 1982 nationwide Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts.

Analysis of the rationale for gathering new data on participation in the arts by the American public, and technical considerations of obtaining new data on arts participation and suggestions for NEA to consider.

Reading on the Rise documents a definitive increase in rates and numbers of American adults who read literature. This new growth reverses two decades of downward trends cited previously in NEA reports such as Reading at Risk and To Read or Not To Read. Reading on the Rise is based on early results from the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts.

This note provides state and regional estimates for artist occupations based on the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Censuses of Population. All 50 states are ranked by the size of their artist labor force and the concentration of artists in the total state labor forces in 1990, 1980, and 1970. Regional estimates are also provided for the four major Census Bureau regions -- Northeast, Midwest, South, and West.

Report on the forum held in Washington, D.C., Oct. 28, 1991, on cultural property and its policy implications.

Self-employment patterns, migration patterns, and household and family characteristics of artists as revealed in census data.

Summarizes the status and activities of state arts agencies in the first year in which all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and four U.S. territories had fully operational arts councils.

Economic census data show 9,303 performing arts companies in 2002, up by 104 from 1997. The data also reveal that many states with large numbers of companies, such as New York and California, lost organizations, while small states such as North Dakota and Mississippi added companies.

Highlights of the studies conducted of the arts public in the South, using both data from a survey of the adult population in 13 states and an analysis of 3 separate surveys conducted by the Louis Harris and Associates organization which compare South and non-South. In addition, arts participation data is presented from the survey of public participation in the arts covering the entire U.S. population in 1982.

Prepared as the final report under Cooperative Agreement NEA DCA 85-24 between the University of Maryland and the National Endowment for the Arts.

Prepared as the final report under Cooperative Agreement NEA DCA 85-24 between the University of Maryland and the National Endowment for the Arts.

A comparison of revenues for nonprofit and taxable theaters based on data from the Economic Censuses of 1992, 1987, and 1982. A distribution of revenue by source (private, public, etc.) is also provided for each type of theater.

Research Note #101 summarizes and reflects upon key findings from three Research Reports: #52, Arts Education in America: What the Declines Mean for Arts Participation; #53, Age and Arts Participation: A Case against Demographic Destiny; and #54, Beyond Attendance: A Multi-Modal Understanding of Arts Participation.

Research Note #102 examines large datasets from multiple federal sources to report on three broad topics related: 1) the total number, staff, and budget size of performing arts organizations; 2) U.S. consumer spending on performing arts admissions and other cultural events; and 3) Americans' daily time spent doing arts and cultural activities, including performing arts attendance. Measures of arts and cultural value that extend beyond mining federal databases are also reviewed.

An assessment of information about craft artists and their work prepared as an aid to planning of new research.

A report which discusses information on various characteristics of the artist population and its position in the U.S. labor force. Data are presented in demographic contexts, as well as by artistic discipline. Based on data extracted from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Censuses of the Population conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

A comparison based on total revenues for nonprofit and taxable performing arts organizations (theater, dance, music). State and regional estimates are also provided.

Data from the personnel files of Actors' Equity Association interpreted by researchers help explain theater employment data systems and the complex conditions governing economic survival of actors.

Report on a study of American artists using data derived from the 1990 federal census, focusing on geography, employment, earnings, demographic background, characteristics of artists' households, and housing.

Investigates how artists get work selected for exhibition and examines the relationship between exhibition and economic success of artists in America's smaller art-market cities.

Regardless of a person's education level, gender, or age, performing arts attendance increases the probability of volunteering by 25 percentage points. Moreover, levels of activity, including arts and sports attendance, are better predictors of volunteering than are demographic traits.

More than 1.6 million Americans volunteered with arts or cultural organizations in 2005. In contrast to volunteers with other types of organizations, arts volunteers are older, better educated, and more giving of their time. More than 7 million Americans, meanwhile, provided free artistic services to non-arts groups such as schools or churches.

This report examines demographic and socio-economic characteristics of adults who attended visual and performing arts activities in 2012, but unlike prior NEA research it offers in-depth perspectives on attitudes, motivations, and barriers concerning arts attendance. Based on a NEA module to the 2012 General Social Survey (GSS). 62 pp. January 2015

Tables, maps, and text summarize census data that show national distribution of the American artist population.

Analysis of data from the 1980 Census of Population comparing growth by women and minorities in the artist occupations for the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Research Note #96 gives a detailed view of women artists, including patterns in the female composition of various artist jobs and in the earnings discrepancies between men and women.

Theater and Musical Theater
1981-2005
17 titles

Using data from the 1982 Census of Service Industries, this Note reviews aggregate financial conditions of nonprofit theater, dance, and classical music organizations. Revenue/expense ratios, detailed sources of revenues, and other information are presented for the three broad groups and for the following selected fields: resident theaters (LORT), stock theaters, Off-Broadway theaters, Off-Off-Broadway theaters, children's theaters, community theaters, ballet companies, modern dance companies, symphony orchestras, opera companies, and chamber music groups.

All America's a Stage examines developments in the growth, distribution, and finances of America's nonprofit theater system since 1990. Nearly 2,000 nonprofit theaters were analyzed for the study. While the research indicates broad growth and generally positive fiscal health, it also reveals decreasing attendance rates and vulnerability during economic downturns.

A white paper based on the "Beyond the Building: Performing Arts and Transforming Place" convening which was held by the National Endowment for the Arts with support from ArtPlace America in November 2014. The convening focused on developing a better understanding of how performance-based organizations, and the artists they engage, use the term creative placemaking and transform places through their artistic practices. 66 pp.

A comparison of revenues for nonprofit and taxable theaters, using the 1982 and 1987 Census results. Distribution of revenue by source (private, public, admission, etc.) for each type of theater is also provided.

A comparison of the taxable and nonprofit sectors of performing arts organizations (theater, music, dance) using data from the 1977, 1982, 1987 Censuses.

2004
Box 2: 19a
2004
Box 2: 20

A comparison based on total revenues for nonprofit and taxable performing arts organizations (theater, dance, music). State and regional estimates are also provided.

Administrative information
Provenance

Gift of the National Endowment for the Arts, 2012-2013.

Processing Information

Processed by I. Eliot Wentworth, Aug. 2013.

Digitized content

All material in the collection has been scanned and are available online through our digital repository, Credo.

Bibliography

For the most recent history of the NEA, see Mark Bauerline, ed., National Endowment for the Arts, 1965-2000: A History, 1965-2008 (2009).

Copyright and Use (More informationConnect to publication information)

Cite as: National Endowment for the Arts Collection (MS 686). Special Collections and University Archives, UMass Amherst Libraries.

Search terms
Subjects
  • Art and state.
  • Arts--Management.
  • Barrier-free design.
  • Dance.
  • Government aid to the arts.
  • Jazz.
  • Museums--United States.
  • Music--Education.
  • Poetry.
  • Reading.
Names
  • Gioia, Dana.
  • National Endowment for the Arts.