Educator, sociologist, scholar, and author. Includes personal and professional correspondence; administrative and teaching records; research data; manuscripts of published and unpublished speeches, articles and books; photographs; and Bond family papers, especially those of Horace Bond's father, James Bond. Fully represented are Bond's two major interests: black education, especially its history and sociological aspects, and Africa, particularly as related to educational and political conditions. Correspondents include many notable African American educators, Africanists, activists, authors and others, such as Albert C. Barnes, Claude A. Barnett, Mary McLeod Bethune, Arna Bontemps, Ralph Bunch, Rufus Clement, J.G. St. Clair Drake, W.E.B. Du Bois, Edwin Embree, John Hope Franklin, E. Franklin Frazier, W.C. Handy, Thurgood Marshall, Benjamin E. Mays, Kwame Nkrumah, Robert Ezra Park, A. Phillip Randolph, Lawrence P. Reddick, A.A. Schomburg, George Shepperson, Carter Woodson and Monroe Work.
Access to a small part of the Papers has been restricted.
Background on Horace Mann Bond
Horace Mann Bond was born on November 8, 1904 in Nashville, Tennessee. He was the son of James and Jane Alice Browne Bond, the fifth of their six children. His mother was a graduate of Oberlin College, and his father, a minister, held degrees from Berea College and Oberlin Seminary. James Bond's career included such positions as financial agent for Lincoln Institute in Kentucky, college pastor at Talladega College in Alabama, minister of an Atlanta church and director of the Kentucky Commission on Interracial Cooperation. Jane Bond was a teacher for many years and pursued graduate work in sociology at Oberlin College.
Horace Mann Bond attended the elementary and high schools of Lincoln Institute, Talladega College and Atlanta University. He completed secondary school at Lincoln Institute in 1919. He began college work at Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania in the fall of 1919, and received an A.B. degree from that institution in 1923.
In 1924 Bond accepted a position as director of the school of education at Langston University in Oklahoma. That same year, he began graduate work at the University of Chicago. He received a master's degree in education in 1926. In 1936 Bond earned his PhD. degree in the history of education. His thesis,"Social and Economic Influences on the Public School Education of Negroes in Alabama, 1865-1930," was awarded the University of Chicago's Susan Colver Rosenberg Prize in June 1937 for the best thesis in the social sciences. It was published in 1939 as Negro Education in Alabama: A Study in Cotton and Steel. Bond's first book, Education of the Negro in the American Social Order, had been published in 1934.
Between 1926 and 1936 Bond pursued both graduate study and employment at various educational institutions. For the academic year 1927-1928, he was director of the extension program at the State Normal School in Montgomery, Alabama. In the fall of 1928, he accepted what was to be the first of several positions with Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. Bond served as head resident of a men's dormitory, taught several classes in education and history, and acted as research assistant to Charles S. Johnson of the social sciences department. During the 1929 and 1930 summer school sessions of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, Bond conducted special classes under the auspices of the American Social Hygiene Association. From 1930 to 1931 Bond was employed at Fisk as a part-time lecturer in education. He worked full-time from 1932 to 1934 as an instructor and as a field worker for student and alumni promotion. In 1933 Bond supervised a Fisk project for the Tennessee Valley Authority which surveyed the social, economic and educational conditions of the black population in selected counties in seven states. From the fall of 1937 to 1939, Bond was head of Fisk's department of education.
It was during his first tenure at Fisk that Horace Bond met Julia Washington, a 1929 graduate of the university. They were married in 1930. Their first child, Marguerite Jane, was born in 1938; Horace Julian was born in 1940; James George, in 1944.
Beginning in the fall of 1929 and continuing for two years, Bond participated in a survey of black schools and the achievement of black children in North Carolina, Louisiana and Alabama. During this time, Bond visited more than 700 urban and rural black schools and administered standardized tests to nearly ten thousand children. The project was sponsored by the Julius Rosenwald Fund, a private foundation that concentrated its efforts in black and southern education. Bond received some financial support for graduate study from the Fund; his association with it continued for many years. As part of another investigation group of the Rosenwald Fund known as the School Exploration Group, Bond and his wife were assigned to study an isolated rural community, Star Creek, in Louisiana during the last months of 1934. The Bonds were directed to observe and report on black schools, social and economic conditions and race relations in the rural South.
In January 1935 Bond began work as dean of Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dillard University combined the institutions of Straight University and New Orleans University with a design to implement some of the principles of "progressive education." The first classes of the new institution were held in September 1935, with Bond teaching courses in education and psychology as well as attending to his administrative responsibilities.
Horace Mann Bond accepted his first college presidency in 1939. The Fort Valley Normal and Industrial School was being incorporated into the Georgia state system of public schools for blacks as the Fort Valley State College. Bond agreed to serve as acting president for one year; he remained as president until the fall of 1945.
While at Fort Valley, besides carrying out regular administrative duties and teaching, Bond worked toward the improvement of college-community relationships and acted to upgrade area black public schools. In conjunction with the Conference of Presidents of Negro Land Grant Colleges and the United States War Department, Bond was also active in the planning of vocational and academic training programs for black soldiers and veterans.
In 1945 Bond was elected to the presidency of Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania. He was the fifth president of the institution, which was founded in 1854 to provide a higher education in the arts and sciences for "youth of African descent," and, although he himself did not make this distinction, he was its first black president. Much of Bond's work at Lincoln was directed toward public relations; during his twelve years there he delivered hundreds of addresses and managed to increase state financial aid to the institution. In 1950 Bond inaugurated for Lincoln one of the nation's first institutes for African studies. He was largely responsible for a rise in the number of African students attending the institution. On a community level, Bond participated in efforts to desegregate local public facilities; his activities included campaigning for a position on the Lower Oxford Board of School Directors in 1947.
Bond pursued extensive research into the history of Lincoln University and the surrounding area. The project was begun as part of the university's 1954 centennial celebration, but Bond's investigation continued well beyond that year. Most of the writing based on his research was published posthumously (1976) as Education for Freedom: A History of Lincoln University, Pennsylvania.
Bond resigned his presidency of Lincoln in June 1957 and was named President Honorarius for life.
While at Lincoln University, in 1949, Horace Bond made the first of many trips to Africa. On this initial visit, under the sponsorship of the African Council on Arts and Research, he made a survey of secondary education in British West Africa. Subsequent trips also included educational consultation, as well as participation in Ghanaian independence celebrations and Liberian mining expeditions.
Bond's interest in Africa and African-American relations led to his affiliations as founding member or officer with several organizations, including the American Society for African Culture, the African Studies Association, the International African American Corporation, and the Africa-America Institute.
In December 1957 Bond delivered the annual Inglis Lecture at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education. His address, "The Search for Talent," dealt with the educational traditions that limited the finding of talent to children of educationally and financially privileged families. The Search for Talent was published in 1959.
Horace Bond had accepted the position of dean of the Atlanta University School of Education in Atlanta, Georgia in July 1957. In addition to fulfilling his role as teacher and administrator there, he engaged in several research projects, including an extensive study of black doctorates. In 1966 Bond relinquished his duties as dean to become director of the Atlanta University Bureau for Educational and Social Research, a position which allowed him to concentrate almost exclusively on educational research. He retired from the University in 1971.
Horace Mann Bond died on December 21, 1972 in Atlanta.
The Papers of Horace Mann Bond, who lived from 1904 to 1972, consist of personal and professional correspondence; administrative and teaching records; research data; manuscripts of published and unpublished speeches, articles and books; and Bond family papers. Fully represented in the Papers are Bond's two self-proclaimed major interests: black education, especially its history and sociological aspects, and Africa, particularly as related to educational and political conditions. The Papers span the years 1830 to 1979, with the bulk of the material falling in the period 1926 to 1972.
General correspondence, covering over forty years of Bond's exchanges with friends and professional contacts, accounts for approximately five percent of the collection. It includes correspondence for which Bond created no specific subject files. Access to particular correspondents is provided by the Series 2 description and by a selective name index to the correspondence (see Appendix).
Alphabetically arranged subject files make up nearly a third of the collection. Bond's affiliations with various educational, cultural and community organizations are well represented in these files. Of special interest are the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People folders, including some material relating to Bond's work on the 1954 United States Supreme Court desegregation case; field work reports to the Rosenwald Fund; and correspondence with and concerning W. E. B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes and Charles S. Johnson.
A large portion of the Papers documents Bond's career at several educational institutions. Atlanta University is represented primarily by over 300 family histories produced by Bond's students. Material relating to Bond's faculty and administrative posts at other institutions is substantive in content although not in bulk.
Material regarding Bond's educational research makes up approximately ten percent of the collection. His study of the economic and educational backgrounds of black doctorates is of particular interest, as are several less extensive projects concerning Southern educational institutions and standardized tests. A few items relate to Bond's PhD. thesis research on the history of black education in Alabama.
Writings in the collection span five decades, from a 1927 Crisis article to the posthumously published history of Lincoln University. They include newspaper articles written for the Associated Negro Press in the early 1930s; Bond's first book, Education of the Negro in the American Social Order, published in 1934; and the Harvard University Inglis Lecture presented by Bond in 1957.
The Bond family papers consist primarily of correspondence belonging to James Bond, Horace Bond's father, describing his activities in black and interracial organizations in Kentucky in the 1920s. Other material, more limited in scope, includes correspondence between Bond and his wife, children and brothers.
Bond's African interests are especially well represented in various parts of the collection. Included in the Papers are extensive correspondence and printed material pertaining to the continent; files relating to Kwame Nkrumah, the American Society for African Culture and the International African American Corporation; correspondence with potential African students at Lincoln University; research data on African students in American colleges; and numerous writings.
Each series is described in detail below. Horace Mann Bond established most of the subject categories within series; the staff of Special Collections and University Archives, in the process of integrating loose material, added others. Unless otherwise noted, papers within folders are arranged chronologically by year, month and day, with undated material following all dated material.
Series and folder numbers appearing in parentheses, e.g. (4: 23), identify the locations of materials mentioned in the series descriptions. Cross-referencing of files is indicated by the use of "see" and "see also" preceding the series and folder designation.
Material removed from normal series location includes originals of oversize materials, newspaper clippings, and other items that have been copied for use in the collection, and whole issues of The New York Times and Time Magazine. The copies are in normal series location, while the originals are to be found in Series 11. A microfilm copy of "The Negro as an American Protestant Missionary in Africa," a dissertation written by W.C. Harr in 1945 at the University of Chicago, was transferred to the University of Massachusetts Library Microforms Collection. Only the relevant portions of periodical issues have been retained. About eleven linear feet of duplicate copies of materials, mostly printed, have been removed.
This collection is organized into eleven series: