Belchertown State School Friends Association Records

Overview: The Belchertown State School was formally opened in 1922 as an institution to train children with developmental disabilities and prepare them for integration into society. By the 1960s, conditions at the school had deteriorated to a degree detrimental to the residents, precipitating a string of lawsuits, beginning with Ricci v. Greenblatt in 1972, eventually leading to closure of the facility in 1992. The School's Friends Association was established in 1954 to promote improved conditions at Belchertown State School and better treatment of "retarded" or "mentally challenged" citizens in Massachusetts more generally.

The bulk of the Belchertown State School collection consists of records of court appearances, briefs, the consent decree, and related materials, along with reports and correspondence relating to Massachusetts v. Russell W. Daniels, Ricci v. Greenblatt (later Ricci v. Okin), and other cases. Accompanying the legal files are clippings and photocopied newspaper articles; speeches; newsletters; draft of agreements; and scrapbooks.

See similar SCUA collections:

Disability
Massachusetts (West)
Medical
Social change
Social justice

Background on Belchertown State School Friends Association

'Our first students,' 1921 from the Aubrey Lapolice Collection

'Our first students,' 1921 from the Aubrey Lapolice Collection

The Belchertown State School for the Feebleminded was founded in Belchertown, Mass., in 1922 to provide long-term care for persons with developmental disabilities. Years of growing concern over the conditions at the School and a series of lawsuits brought by Benjamin Ricci, the father of a patient at the school and a Professor of Kinesiology at UMass Amherst, the School was closed in 1992.

The product of a Progressive-era concern with developmental and psychiatric disability, the Belchertown State School began as part of a humane project to create institutions that would house and train the "mentally deficient" separately from the mentally ill and prepare them for integration into society, rather than segregating them permanently. Preceded by the Walter E. Fernald School (founded 1848) and Wrentham State School for the Feebleminded (1906), Belchertown was the only school for developmentally disabled children in western Massachusetts.

Construction at Belchertown was authorized by the General Court in 1915 with an appropriation of $50,000 to purchase land. From 1918 to 1922, it operated as a farm colony of the Wrentham State School, opening formally in November 1922 with the transfer of nearly 200 boys from the older schools. Typical of the period, the school was originally built as dispersed cottages centered on a farm operation, growing into a campus of over 845 acres and at least 57 buildings with a total population of nearly 750 by the end of its first decade.

For decades, the school operated with little public scrutiny, however changing attitudes toward disability and exposes of abhorrent conditions in psychiatric institutions gradually shifted the terrain. The Mental Health and Retardation Services Act in Massachusetts (1966) marked the beginning of a systematic effort to shift away from institutionalization as a response to developmental and psychiatric disability toward community-based care. At Belchertown, the process was accelerated after reports of "deplorable conditions" appeared in a series of articles in the Boston Globe and other newspapers resulted in the formation of a special legislative commission to inquire into conditions at the State Schools at Monson and Belchertown. The first report from the commission in March 1971 was scathing:

The deterioration of Belchertown State School speaks for itself - a departmental inability to face up to the facts to accept the idea that there are alternatives to custodial methods of care, the resistance to the development of standards, the unclear and undefined lines of authority and responsibility in the department, the absence of management systems and management control, the severe lack of administrative coordination, the unrealistic emphasis on promises and not performance, the low esteem for the dignity and the potential rehabilitation of the individual residents, the misuse of available resources at Belchertown, and the negative and obstructionist attitude of the administration at the school." (Boston Globe, Mar. 26, 1971.

On behalf of his son, Robert Simpson Ricci, and others at the school, Ben Ricci filed a class action suit in the U.S. District Court for Massachusetts on February 7, 1972 (Ricci v Milton Greenblatt et al.), asserting that conditions at the school violated the statutory and constitutional rights of its residents, including the right to minimally adequate care and treatment. Parallel suits were soon filed against four other state schools. These five suits were eventually consolidated by the court and in 1978, a consent decree was issued against the defendants mandating a host of improvements. When the defendants notified the District Court that they intended to reduce staffing further in 1981, however, further litigation ensued to prevent the reductions, with the court again finding in favor of the plaintiffs.

In 1986, the Court stepped away from overseeing compliance with its decrees, ordering the establishment of an independent Office of Quality Assurance to ensure continued compliance. Belchertown State School formally closed in 1992.

The Belchertown State School Friends Association was established in 1954 to promote improved conditions at Belchertown State School and better treatment of "retarded" or "mentally challenged" citizens in Massachusetts. Benjamin Ricci served as President of the Association during the time of his lawsuits, 1970-1977, and as Chairman of the Board thereafter, 1977-1992.

Contents of Collection

The bulk of the Belchertown State School collection consists of records of court appearances, briefs, the consent decree, and related materials, along with reports and correspondence relating to Massachusetts v. Russell W. Daniels, Ricci v. Greenblatt (later Ricci v. Okin), and other cases. Accompanying the legal files are clippings and photocopied newspaper articles; speeches; newsletters; draft of agreements; and scrapbooks.

Series descriptions

Materials on the founding and operations of the Belchertown State School Friends Association.

Records pertaining to the case of Russell W. Daniels, a man with a second-grade reading ability and IQ of 53, who was convicted of murder solely on the basis of a confession while under custodial interrogation.

Records of Ricci's court appearances relative to his lawsuits against the Belchertown State School, including affidavits, responses, motions, supporting documents, and court orders.

Materials relating to the

Collection inventory
Series 1. Organizational materials
1954-1979
Addresses
1973-1975
Box 1: 01
Agreement between Belchertown State School Friends Association and UMass/Amherst
1974 July 19
Box 1: 02
General Materials
ca.1970-1979
Box 1: 1
Correspondence, Re: 4 deaths
1972-1973
Box 1: 2
Name change, memoranda
1975
Box 1: 3
Newsletter, "The Bell"
1954
Box 1B: 5a-
Series 2. Russ Daniels Case
1973-1983
Court documents
1973-1977
Box 2: 1-6
Correspondence
1973-1987
Box 2A: 7-15
News clips
1973-1983
Box 2B: 16-22
Series 3. Court appearances and related records
1972-1984

Key: consent decree, memoranda etc. (other than Russ Daniels case), arranged chronologically. O= Okin; G= Gauthier; Mc= McEvoy; R= Ricci; MARC= Massachusetts Association for Retarded Citizens, Inc.

Court Appearances and Related Records
1972
Box 3: 01a-
Consent Decree (R, et al.)
1973 Nov. 12
Box 3A: 1
Court Appearances (R)
1973 Nov. 12
Box 3: 2
Court Appearances (R)
1974 Jan. 12
Box 3A: 2A
Court Appearances (R)
1974 Mar. 14
Box 3: 3
Affidavit and The Status of the Consent Decree
1974 Dec. 03
Box 3A: 3A
Court Appearances (R)
1974 Dec. 04
Box 3: 4
Court Appearances (R)
1975 June 13
Box 3: 5
Court Appearances (R)
1975 July 01
Box 3: 6
Court Appearances (R)
1975 Sept. 12
Box 3: 7
Motion for Consolidation of Cases, Memorandum in Support..., Opposition of Defendants
1975 Sept. 29
Box 3A: 7A
Court Appearances (R)
1975 Sept. 30
Box 3: 8
Order
1975 Oct. 8
Box 3A: 8A
Court Appearances (G)
1975 Nov. 04
Box 3: 9
Court Appearances (G)
1975 Nov. 25
Box 3A: 9A
Court Appearances (G)
1976 Feb. 9
Box 3: 10
Complaint
1976 Dec. 17
Box 3A: 10A
Court Appearances (R, G)
1976 Apr. 12
Box 3: 11
Motions for Consolidation and Oppositions to Motions.
1967 Mar. 10
Box 3A: 11A
Court Appearances (R, G)
1977 Jan. 24
Box 3: 12
Court Appearances (R)
1977 Feb. 15
Box 3A: 12A
Court Appearances (MARC)
1977 Mar. 4
Box 3: 13
Public Hearing
1977 June 10
Box 3A: 13A
Court Order
1977 Apr. 18
Box 3: 14
Memorandum
1977 July 22
Box 3A: 14A
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1977 July 25
Box 3: 15
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1977 Nov. 10
Box 3: 16
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1977 Dec. 5
Box 3: 17
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1978 Feb. 21
Box 3: 18
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1978 Feb. 28
Box 4: 19
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1978 Apr. 7
Box 4: 19A
Affidavit and Appendices
1978 Mar. 31
Box 3A: 19B
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1978 May 12
Box 4: 20
Court Appearances (R, Mc ,G, MARC)
1978 June 14
Box 4: 20A
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1978 Aug. 2
Box 4: 21
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1978 Oct. 27
Box 4: 22
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Feb. 16
Box 4: 23
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Apr. 26
Box 4: 24
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 June 15
Box 4: 25
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 July 6
Box 4: 26
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 July 31
Box 4: 27
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Aug. 7
Box 4: 28
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Aug. 21
Box 4: 29
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Sept. 7
Box 4: 30
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Nov. 15
Box 4: 31
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Dec. 18
Box 5: 32
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1979 Dec. 20
Box 5: 33
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1980 Sept. 5
Box 5: 33A
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1980 Nov. 19
Box 5: 34
Court Appearances (R)
1980 Nov. 20
Box 5: 35
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1981 Jan. 29
Box 5: 36
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1981 Feb. 25
Box 5: 37
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1981 Mar. 5
Box 5: 38
Defendant's Notice to Court
198107
Box 5: 38a
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1981 Aug. 12
Box 5: 39
Quality of life; Order, Restraining
1981 Apr. 14
Box 5: 39A
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 May 13
Box 6: 40
Defendant's Request to Expand the Hearing
1981 Aug. 12
Box 6: 40A
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Sept. 3
Box 6: 41
Court Order from Judge Tauro
1981 July 27
Box 6
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Sept. 4
Box 6: 42
U.S. District Court Order, number of Staff
1981 Sept. 14
Box 6: 43
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Nov. 20
Box 6: 44
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Nov. 24
Box 6: 45
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Nov. 25
Box 6: 46
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Dec. 1
Box 7: 47
Plaintiffs Motion to Close Buildings
1981 Dec. 1
Box 7
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Dec. 2
Box 7: 48
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Dec. 4
Box 7: 49
Court Appearances (R, O)
1981 Dec. 11
Box 7: 50
Opposition to Motion to Close
1981 Dec. 11
Box 7
Court Appearances (R, O)
1982 Jan. 12
Box 7: 51
Motion to Close Buildings
1982 Feb. 16
Box 7: 52
Court Appearances (R, O)
1982 Feb. 17
Box 7: 53
Court Order
1982 Mar. 2
Box 7: 53A
Court Monitor's Report and Recommendations on Plaintiffs' Motion to Close Buildings
1982 Apr. 16
Box 7: 54
Motion to Proceed with Extraordinary Measures
1982 Apr. 7
Box 7: 55
Opinion and Order of the Court Staffing
1982 Apr. 21
Box 12: 56
Procedural Order
1982 Apr. 26
Box 7: 57
Defendants' Comments in Response to Court Monitors Report and on Plaintiff's motion to close certain buildings at Belchertown State School.
1982 May 19
Box 7: 58
Recommendation on Motion to Close buildings
1982
Box 7
Plaintiffs' objections to the Court Monitor's report and recommendations
1982 May 26
Box 7: 59
Defendants' motion to request the deletion of the Michael House from the renovation Schedule at Belchertown School.
1982 June 30
Box 7: 60
Plaintiff's opposition to defendants' motion to request the deletion of the Michael House from the renovation schedule at Belchertown State School
1982 July 6
Box 7
Proposed Order: Re: Robert Simpson Ricci, et al, Plaintiffs vs. Robert L. Okin, M.D., et al, Defendants - U.S. District Court Civil Action No. 72-469-T
1982 July 29
Box 7
Affidavits by Superintendent Jones concerning the condition of certain buildings and plans for the placement of residents at Belchertown State School, and one by Commissioner Mills
1982 July 12
Box 8: 61
Affidavit of William E. Jones
1982 July 12
Box 8
Defendants response to the Report to the Court filed by the U.S. District Court Monitor on June 18, 1982
1982 July 19
Box 8
Court Order of Judge Tauro, D.J..
1982 Aug. 3
Box 8
Affidavit of William T. Hogan Jr., Secretary of Human Services
1982 Aug. 27
Box 8: 62
Motion to Strike the Affidavit of William T. Hogan, Jr., Relative to Plaintiffs' Motion to Close Buildings C, E, F, G, and Infirmary at Belchertown State School
1982 Sept. 1
Box 8
Court Appearances (R, O)
1982 Sept. 2
Box 8: 63
Court Appearances (R, Mc, G, MARC)
1982 Sept. 28
Box 8: 64
Plaintiffs' Opposition to Defendants' Motion to Excuse Secretary Bartley, Secretary Hogan, Jr., and Commissioner Mills from the Court Hearing Scheduled for September 24, 1982
1982 Sept. 21
Box 8
Supplemental Affidavit of William T. Hogan, Jr.
1982 Oct. 18
Box 8: 65
Motion to Require Michael Hogan, Ph.D., District I Manager, to Identify and Report to the Court All Belchertown Community Placements
1982 Jan. 4
Box 8: 66
Certificate of Service: Beryl Cohen
1982 Jan. 4
Box 8
Federal Register, Vol. 47, No. 166, 42 CFR Part 442
1982 Aug. 26
Box 8
Motion to Update Certain Capital Renovation Schedules for Projects at Belchertown and Dever State School
1982 Nov. 24
Box 8
Affidavit of Benjamin Ricci in Support of Motion to Require Michael Hogan, District One Manager Department of Mental Health, to Identify Community Placements and Report to the Court
1982 Dec. 30
Box 8
Order (Ricci vs. Okin)
1983 Feb. 8
Box 8: 67
Procedural Order
1983 Feb. 15
Box 8
Order from U.S. District Judge Tauro
1983 May 18
Box 8: 68
Memorandum from U.S. District Judge Tauro
1983 May 18
Box 8
Court Appearances: Ricci vs. Okin etc.
1983 Mar. 24
Box 8: 69
Court Appearances: Ricci vs. Callahan, etc.
1983 July 13
Box 8: 70
Motion of Secretary of Health and Human Services for Additional Time in Which to Prepare Her Statement of Position
1983 Sept. 13
Box 8: 71
Belchertown Plaintiff's Response to the Court Order of September 7, 1983, Relative to Non-Compliance of Buildings E, F, G, and Infirmary with title XIX and the consent-decree
1983 Sept. 16
Box 8
Defendant's Statement of Position concerning Buildings E, F, G, and Infirmary at Belchertown State School
1983 Sept. 21
Box 8: 72
Plaintiffs response to the defendants' statement of position concerning buildings E, F, G, and Infirmary of Belchertown State School
1983 Oct. 5
Box 8: 73
Defendant's Response to the Statement of Position of the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services
1983 Nov. 21
Box 8: 74
Memorandum/Order
1983 Dec. 12
Box 8: 75
Memorandum and Order
1983 Dec. 12
Box 8: 76
Memorandum
1984 Jan. 12
Box 8
Motion for an order to require the return of 233 Class members to the Belchertown State School who are presently inappropriately resident in nursing homes receiving no active treatment
1984 Jan. 27
Box 8: 77
Renewed Motion for a Temporary Restraining Order
1984 Jan. 30
Box 8
Plaintiffs' motion for an order to require the defendants to report the death of a class member to the plaintiffs
1984 Jan. 9
Box 8
Plaintiffs' motion for an order to require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to withhold Federal matching funds and otherwise impose financial sanctions against the Commonwealth
1984 Jan. 23
Box 8
Plaintiffs' motion for an order joining the Secretary of the Executive Office of Communities and Development as a defendant
1984 Jan. 23
Box 88
Plaintiffs' Motion for an order to declare the Capital Outlay Budget in violation of consent decrees
1984 Jan. 23
Box 8
Order
1984 Jan. 24
Box 8: 78
Motion for an order to require the return of 233 class members to the Belchertown State School who are presently inappropriately resident in nursing homes receiving no active treatment
1984 Jan. 27
Box 8
Renewed motion for a temporary restraining order
1984 Jan. 30
Box 8
Plaintiffs' motion for an order to require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to Withhold approval of waivers under Title XIX at the Belchertown and Fernald State School and the Monson Developmental Center without the expressed authorization of the Federal Court
1984 Feb. 9
Box 8: 79
Defendants' proposed agenda for providing appropriate housing and facilities for all class members
1984 Feb. 14
Box 8
Plaintiffs' motion for an order to require the defendant, Governor Michael S. Dukakis to amend the Executive Budget Recommendations to the General Court of the Commonwealth for the fiscal year 1985 beginning July 1,1984, in the Department of Mental Health account so as to include an appropriation of $7,980,000 for the construction of ICF/MRs at the Belchertown State School
1984 Feb. 27
Box 8
Defendants' response to the secretary's report to the court of March 15, 1984
1984 Mar. 28
Box 8: 80
Defendants' motion to establish capital renovation schedules for certain projects at Fernald, Dever, and Wrentham State Schools and Monson Developmental Center
undated
Box 8
Memorandum
1984 May 9
Box 8
Order
1984 May 9
Box 8
Defendants' schedule for providing suitable community-based housing for class members now in interim beds
1984 May 30
Box 8
Series 4. Reports and correspondence
1970-1984
Correspondence
1970
Box 9A: 01a-
Special Legislative Commission on Belchertown State School
1970-1972
Box 9B: 02
Joint Commission on Belchertown State School and Monson State Hospital, Report
1971 May 21
Box 9: 1
Massachusetts Task Force on Children Suffer the Children
1972
Box 9: 2
Report of Secretary Goldmark, on Four Deaths at Belchertown
1973 May 29
Box 9: 3
Joint Special Commission on the Belchertown State School and Munson State Hospital, Report
1974 Jan.
Box 9: 4
Dr. Jones Report on the hiring of the Domestic Workers
1974 Jan. 12
Box 9B: 4A
Joint Special Commission on Facilities for the Mentally Retarded, Interim Report
1974 June
Box 9: 5
Harold A. McCreasky and Associates, Inc., Report of
1975 Mar.
Box 9B: 5A
Taylor, Steven J. Working Paper on Life at Belchertown. . . School
1975
Box 9: 6
Campus Futures: in the Balance B.S.S./Region I
1976 Aug.
Box 9B: 6A
Grant, H.E.W.
1976-1977
Box 9: 6B
Rusenfeld-Tauro Correspondence
1977
Box 9: 7
Development Handbook
1976 Nov.
Box 9B: 7A
Report Concerning incidents of Hepatitis B Virus
1978 Apr. 26
Box 9: 7B
Ricci vs. Greenblatt, Monitoring Meeting
1979
Box 9: 8
Progress Report from UMass/Worcester
1976 Oct. 19
Box 9B: 8A
U.S. District Court Monitor Horowitz Report to the Court
1979 Dec.
Box 9: 9
U.S. District Court Monitor Horowitz Report to the Court
1979 Dec.
Box 9: 10
U.S. District Court Monitor Horowitz Report to the Court
1980 Aug.
Box 9: 11
U.S. District Court Monitor Horowitz Report to the Court
1981 Feb.
Box 9: 12
Horowitz S., Court Monitor, Letter of Resignation
1981 Feb. 19
Box 9: 13
Massachusetts Association for Retarded Citizens, et al Report to the Court
1981 Feb. 20
Box 9: 14
Correspondence of Lawrence W. Osborn, with encl.
1981 Oct. 22
Box 9: 14A
Executive Summary of Report to Federal District Court with Attachments
1982 Jan. 12
Box 10: 15
Class Member Master List
1982 Jan. 29
Box 9B: 15A
Supplemental Federal Report to the Federal District Court with Attachments
1982 Feb. 9
Box 10: 16
June Report Describing the Status of Major Activities and Projects Relative to Consent Decree Compliance and Community Plan Implementation
1982 June 21
Box 11: 17
Correspondence of Mark J. Mills
1982 June 15
Box 11
TEC 60 Day Status Report (R, Mark Mills)
1982 Sept. 1
Box 11: 18
A Public Hearing Taken Before the Department of Mental Health
1976 Sept. 15
Box 13: 19
Report of the Legislative Research Council, Relative to Requiring prior Legislative Approval
1981 Mar. 5
Box 13: 20
Report of Personnel Decree Compliance
1981 Mar. 17
Box 13: 21
Memorandum from Judge Tauro
1981 July 27
Box 13
Report to the Federal District Court: Exhibits and Attachments.
1981 Nov.
Box 13: 22
Special Article: "From Asylum to Community: The Threatened Disintegration of Public Psychiatry"
1983 Feb. 17
Box 13: 23
Report to the Court: District Court Monitor
1983 Feb.
Box 13: 24
Correspondence Murdock to Tauro, Re: Ricci et al.
1983 Mar. 15
Box 13
Update on the status of the Respite Care Dev. Plan
1983 Mar. 28
Box 13: 25
Report to court
1983 Mar. 31
Box 13
Opposition to Report to Court
1983 Apr. 1
Box 13
Notice of Meetings
1983 Apr. 7
Box 13
Memorandum
1983 Apr. 8
Box 13
The Developmentally Disabled: Civil Rights Issues, Final report of the Mass. Comm. on the legal and civil rights of the developmentally disabled
1976 May
Box 13: 26
The Mass. Consent Decrees for Mentally Retarded Citizens: Produced by the Dept. of MHD of M Retardation office of training and resource Dev.; also included is a cover letter from W. Jones
1980 Feb.
Box 13: 27
Tenth Quarterly Report on Occupational Therapy Initiatives in Higher Education and Related Areas
1983 June 24
Box 13: 28
Video Cassette of WGBY-TV Production, "Nightalk", Belchertown State
1983 June 27
Box 13: 29
School; hosted by Dave Scott.
undated
Box 13
"Human Policy, A Paper from the Center On"
undated
Box 13: 30
Narrative portions of the Department of Public Health Fire Safety Evaluation System surveys for Fernald, Monson, and Belchertown. Also attached is correspondence to the state school superintendents requesting details of their plans to accommodate residents in response to the DPH findings
1983 Oct. 17
Box 13: 31
Longitudinal Study of the Court-Ordered De-institutionalization of Pennhurst; Implementation analysis #3: issues affecting complex Litigation
1983 Aug. 15
Box 13: 32
Correspondence: Every, Corrigan and Ricci to Dukakis
1983 Dec. 28
Box 13: 33

Administrative information

Access

The collection is open for research.

Language:

English

Provenance

Gift of Benjamin Ricci, 1980-1990.

Related material

SCUA also houses a small collection of photographs from Aubrey Lapolice, a maintenance superintendent at the Belchertown State School for forty years.

The collection of the photojournalist Jeff Albertson includes a series of photographs taken of the conditions at Belchertown State School in Dec. 1972.

Processing Information

Processed by I. Eliot Wentworth, Dec. 2015.

Copyright and Use (More informationConnect to publication information)

Cite as: Belchertown State School Friends Association Records (MS 302). Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries.

Search terms

Subjects

  • Belchertown (Mass.)--History
  • Belchertown State School
  • Persons with mental disabilities--Institutional care--Massachusetts

Link to similar SCUA collections

Names

  • Ricci, Benjamin
  • Ricci, Robert Simpson

Genre terms

  • Maps