German-born agricultural chemist, professor of Chemistry at the University of Massachusetts Amherst when it was known as Massachusetts Agricultural College, and President of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists and the American Chemical Society who made several important contributions in nineteenth century chemistry and held at least four patents. Includes correspondence (mostly professional), some with presidents of Massachusetts Agricultural College, William Smith Clark (1826-1886) and Henry Hill Goodell (1839-1905). Also contains handwritten drafts of addresses and articles, his dissertation, printed versions of published writings, handwritten lecture notes, class records, proposed college curricula, notes taken by students, handwritten research notes, newsclippings and offprints utilized in research, and biographical materials.
The collection is open for research.
Background on Charles Anthony Goessmann
Charles Anthony Goessmann was born in Naumberg, Hessen Cassel, Germany on June 13, 1827. He received his early education at the Latin School in Fritzlar, and then entered the University of Goettingen in 1850. There he studied chemistry, botany, physics, geology, and mineralogy, and received his PhD in 1853. From 1852 to 1857 he occupied the position of assistant in the Royal Chemical University Laboratory, and in 1855 was appointed Privat Docent, and lectured in chemistry and pharmacy.
In 1857 Goessmann left Goettingen, visited a number of universities and manufacturing establishments in Germany, Austria, France, and England, and then journeyed to the United States. In America, he accepted the position of chemist and subsequently manager of the Eastwich Brothers Sugar Refinery of Philadelphia. After leaving Philadelphia, he studied sugar refining methods in Cuba, and then accepted the position of chemist with the Onondaga Salt Company of Syracuse, New York. There he investigated improvements in the manufacture of salt, and served as professor of chemistry and physics at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy.
In 1868 W. S. Clark, the President of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, invited him to fill the position of Professor of Chemistry. He accepted and remained in that position until his retirement in 1907. While serving at the Agricultural College he was elected Chemist to the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, as well as State Inspector of Fertilizers in 1873 and subsequently an analyst to the State Board of Health. In 1882 he was appointed Director of the Massachusetts State Agricultural Experiment Station, an office he filled throughout its twelve year existence. In addition to these positions he was a member of several leading scientific societies including: the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, an organization of which he was the first president; the American Chemical Society, which he served as president and vice-president; the German Society of Naturalists and Physicians; the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the Massachusetts Horticultural Society; and the Massachusetts Meteorological Society. Upon his retirement in 1907 he served as Professor Emeritus until his death in 1910.
His scientific research includes several important contributions in nineteenth century chemistry. His early investigations include the discovery of new organic acids, and a new mode of producing organic alkaloids and amino compounds. His later investigations include research in the cultivation of sugar cane on the island of Cuba and the state of Louisiana, the development of the sorghum and sugar beet as sugar-producing plants for home consumption, the chemistry of brines and the character of the salt resources of the United States and Canada, and the influence of special systems of feeding plants for industrial purposes. The papers indicate that he also held at least four patents.
The papers of Charles A. Goessmann document his distinguished career as an agricultural chemist, author, and professor of chemistry. They consist of biographical materials, correspondence (mostly professional), handwritten drafts of addresses and articles, published reports, lecture notes, class records, proposed college curricula, notes taken by students, and handwritten research notes. Also included are materials that Goessmann collected in Germany before immigrating to America, his dissertation written at the University of Goettingen (1853), and a scrapbook containing newsclippings related to research. The largest part of the papers were generated between 1880 and 1900, the years Dr. Goessmann was most active at the Massachusetts Agricultural College and the period that he served as State Inspector of Fertilizers.
The papers are arranged in five series, including Biographical Materials, Correspondence, Writings, Course Materials, and Research Materials.
This collection is organized into five series:
Acquired from the Chemistry Department in 1974.
Processed by Guy A. McLain Jr., 1983.
Encoding funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Cite as: Charles Anthony Goessmann Papers (RG 40/11 Goessmann). Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries.