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1905 July

  • Burnett’s Popular Price Restaurant, Menu. (Fort Erie Grove, Ont., 1905 July)
    Menu signed by delegates to 1st annual meeting
  • Du Bois, W.E.B., A Proposed Platform for the Conference at Buffalo. (Buffalo, N.Y., 1905 July)
    “The Niagara Movement stands for: 1. Freedom of speech and criticism; 2. Freedom of an unsubsidized Press; 3. Full manhood suffrage restricted only (a) by ignorance in cases where the ignorance is due to neglect of opportunity or (b crime.; 4. The abolition of all caste distinctions based simply on race and color; 5. The recognition of the principal of human brotherhood as a practical present creed; 6. The recognition of the highest and best human training as the monopoly of no class or race.7. A belief in the dignity of manual toil; 8. United effort to realize these ideals under a leadership of courage and ideals.”
  • Niagara Movement, List of delegates to 1st Annual Meeting of the Niagara Movement. (TD, 1905 July)
  • Niagara Movement, Constitution and By-Laws of the Niagara Movement. (S.l.: s.n., 1905 July)
    First printing (?).
1905 July 11-13

  • Niagara Movement, Program. (1905 July 11-13)
    Program of 1st annual meeting
1905 July 11-14

1905 September 2

  • Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1905 September 2)
    “Of course I have heard of the Niagara movement. I dont live in the desert! I read of it in the Post and the Christian Register which had a sympathetic account of the matter. Then I subscribed to the Guardian and have grown more fond of Mr. Washington evry day! I should think Mr. Trotter would make converts to the other side with every edition.”
1905 September 13

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Membership letter no. 1. (Dorchester, Mass., 1905 September 13)
    Listing state secretaries and goal of increasing membership to 200 by November 1st.
1905 October 7

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Membership letter no. 2. (Atlanta, Ga., 1905 October 7)
    Announcing “demonstration of our strength and principles” on Thanksgiving night in form a local meetings to the “Friends of Freedom,” especially William Lloyd Garrison and Albion W. Tourgee
  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Secretarial letter no. 2. (Atlanta, Ga., 1905 October 7)
    Urging preparation for the November meeting. “Get the best speakers possible, white and black, Niagara men and neutrals. Be sure of one strong Niagara speech. . . “
1905 November 1

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Membership letter no. 3. (Atlanta, Ga., 1905 November 1)
    Stressing the need for success for Thanksgiving meeting and preparation for 100th anniversary of Garrison’s birth in December.
  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Secretarial letter no. 3. (Atlanta, Ga., 1905 November 1)
    Proposed progam for Thanksgiving meeting
1905 November 28

  • Johnson, C. C., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Aiken, S.C., 1905 November 28)
    Likely to be interested in the Niagara Movement. “I cannot believe that in the long run it can be for the real good of any race to oppress unjustly any man or set of men anywhere in the world. . . God and right will rule, and must rule in the affairs of races as well as in those of individuals. . . It surely needs no argument to any fair minded man to be convinced that the national sin of our coutnry today is the shameful injustice to which our race is subjected in practically all parts of the land, both in a private and a public way. But we ask not the destruction or overthrow of the oppressors, we seek not their harm; on the other hand we desire thair good, when we earnestly ask them to think on these things, to put themselves in our place, as it were, and think how they would like to be thus treated. Can it be treason to refer to the Golden Rule?”

1906 January 30

1906 February 26

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Membership letter no. 4. (Atlanta, Ga., 1906 February 26)
    Announcing incorporation of the Movement and cooperation with the Constitutional League and the Annual Equal Rights Convention in Georgia.
1906 May 16

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, letter to Colleagues. (Atlanta, Ga., 1906 May 16)
    Requesting action on letter (reproduced) from Clement G. Morgan regarding the Foraker Amendment to the rate bill and extension of Jim Crow laws to interstate rail travel
1906 June 13

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, letter to Colleagues. (Atlanta, Ga., 1906 June 13)
    Current state of the Movement, membership, cooperation with other movements, income.
1906 July 31

  • Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1906 July 31)
    “Are there to be any women at Harpers Ferry, and would you like me there as a reporter for the N.Y. Evening Post if it should work out that I could go?”
1906 August

1906 August 8?

  • Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1906 August 8?)
    Covering Harpers Ferry will be her first reporter’s work. Du Bois reply (in pencil on verso): “I shall look out for you. I’m afraid I can’t smuggle you into the members meetings but I’ll smuggle all the important matter out to you.”
1906 August 15

1906 August 17

  • Gray, Arthur S. (recorder), Minutes of meeting. (Harpers Ferry, W.Va., 1906 August 17)
    Summary of report of Committees on Education, Health, Legal Defense
  • Gray, Arthur S. (recorder), Minutes. (Harpers Ferry, W.Va., 1906 August 17)
    Report of Auditing Committee and Executive Committee. Shorthand notes on verso of second sheet.
1906 August 18

  • Gray, Arthur S. (recorder), Minutes of meeting. (Harpers Ferry, W.Va., 1906 August 18)
    TDS, 1p.
  • Gray, Arthur S. (recorder), Minutes of meeting. (Harpers Ferry, W.Va., 1906 August 18)
    Report of Special Committee to finance the John Brown fort property
  • Niagara Movement. Treasurer, Dues paid — Full Members. (S.l., 1906 August 18)
    List of full members and dues paid
  • Niagara Movement. Treasurer, [Dues paid] Associate members. (S.l., 1906 August 18)
    List of associate members and dues paid
  • Niagara Movement. Treasurer, Treasurers Report. (Harpers Ferry, W.Va., 1906 August 18)
1906 August 19

  • Gray, Arthur S. (recorder), Minutes. (Harpers Ferry, W.Va., 1906 August 19)
    Minutes of final session.
1906 September 10

  • Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1906 September 10)
    Articles publisheed in the Post and Independent. “I am afraid I made it too clear as to just where the point of division between the two Negro camps lies. Dr. Washington wants to keep this fuddled, and what Dr. Washington wants still goes. ‘But not for long, oh not for long.’”

1907 February 25

  • Goff, Robert W., letter to F. H. M. Murray. (Lynchburg, Va., 1907 February 25)
    Sending names of ministers interested in the movement.
1907 April 1

1907 April 10

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Membership letter no. 4. (Atlanta, Ga., 1907 April 10)
    Regarding case of Barbara Pope and Jim Crow on the rail cars. The Niagara Movement has established that the rail line cannot fine interstate passengers, but asks whether they can deny passage.
1907 April 15

  • Crawford, George W., Niagara Movement Department of Civil Rights, Departmental Letter no. 1. (New Haven, Conn., 1907 April 15)
    Urges cooperation in four lines of work: 1. securing an effective civil rights bill in the northern states, 2. organizing in each northern state “some sort of machine, like the Constitutional League,” 3. improve traveling accommodations on rail in the south, and 4. to force “colored” service on juries in the south.
1907 April 16

  • De Berry, William N., letter to George W. Crawford. (Springfield, Mass., 1907 April 16)
    “While I am in most hearty sympathy with the aims of the Niagara Movement, I have been unable to bring myself into accord with the methods, in the main, which it has adopted for realizing these aims.” Declines active membership.
1907 April 30

  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to William N. De Berry. (Atlanta, Ga., 1907 April 30)
    Thought De Berry had joined the Movement, and is sorry that he cannot “work for its object. We are wedded to no particular way of working we comprise men of a great many different kind of ideas and the plan is to let every one work freely for the great object. If any one does not like our methods we are very glad to have them come in and show us better methods but I think it is very unfortunate at this time to have a man of your ability and ideals stand outside of an organization like this and refuse to help.
  • Murray, F. H. M., The Niagara Movement. (Alexandria, Va., 1907 April 30)
    Forwarding certificates of membership. Regretting departure of J.R.L. Diggs as State Secretary
  • Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1907 April 30)
    “You spoke to me in the Winter of joining the Niagara Movement. If the members really want me, I shall be most glad to be one of your number.”
1907 June 1

1907 August 2

  • Murray, F. H. M., letter to Comrade. (Alexandria, Va., 1907 August 2)
    Urging cooperation. “The Niagara Movement is not merely an academical body. It is militant. Our fight is waged and to be waged against the outer enemy and the inner racial indifference and tendency to lethargy. It is obvious that there is a concerted plan — a conspiracy, not of silence but to silence our demand for full citizenship and to belittle and deride any aspiration for the larger liberty and higher outlook.”
1907 August 3

  • Goff, Robert W., . (Lynchburg, Va., 1907 August 3)
1907 August 25

  • National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, letter to Niagara Movement members. (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1907 August 25)
    Greetings from Equal Suffrage League, National Association of Colored Womens Clubs. “These are auspicious times, and many violations of the laws of both state and nation in the interest of the Negro for proper development as citizens are constantly occurring; yet these are grand incentives for us to accept in the name and service of the Lord, as His ammunition to assist us in the battle for justice. Dear friends, these apparent obstacles which beset our pathway in our struggles are blessings in disguise; can be not look upon them as such? Therefore, be assured that we are with you in the spirit of the work to co-operate in any practical way.” Signed by Sarah J. S. Garnet, Mary E. Eaton, Lydia C. Smith, and V. Morton-Jones.
1907 August 26-29

  • Niagara Movement, Minutes. (Boston, Mass., 1907 August 26-29)
1907 August

1907 September 5

  • McGhee, Frederick L., letter to W.E.B. Du Bois. (St. Paul, Minn., 1907 September 5)
    Planning for meeting. John Hope and Carter Woodson may be persuaded.
1907 September 30

1907 September

1907 October 8

  • Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1907 October 8)
    Asks Du Bois about the nature of the dispute with the Massachusetts branch of the Movement and the problems with Lewis and Trotter. “You can readily guess that you are severely criticized, and that the slick ones believe that you are caught at last. Of course I have all confidence in you, but it would be well since I shall hear as I did last night, terrible criticism, that I should known from you the facts.
    I cared little for Mr. Trotter when you introduced him to me with such eulogy at Harper’s Ferry, but I have grown increasingly to admire the man, and when I knew that he and Mr. Morgan were ‘out’ I greatly hoped that he would sin, since Mr. Morgan, while very pleasant, has great vanity, and that often blinds a man’s judgment.
    How happy Washington must be over this. I can see him rubbing his hand with glee, and calling on the good work to go on.”
1907 October 23

1907 October 31

  • Du Bois, W.E.B., letter to Niagara Movement. State Secretaries. (Atlanta, Ga., 1907 October 31)
    Inquiring whether the committees could meet during the holidays. Includes hand written reply by Richard Hill that he would like to attend and will name a proxy if unable.
1907 November 2

  • Clifford, J. R., letter to W.E.B. Du Bois. (Martinsburg, W.Va., 1907 November 2)
    Agrees that a committee meeting is needed; prefers meeting in DC., Philadelphia, or Harrisburg.
1907 November 7

  • Barber, J. Max, letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Chicago, Ill., 1907 November 7)
    Agrees a committee meeting is needed and will attend if possible.
1907 November 11

1907 November 12

  • Murray, F. H. M., letter to W.E.B. Du Bois. (Washington, D.C., 1907 November 12)
    Sees need for a meeting, but cannot afford to attend.
1907 November 13

  • Morgan, Clement G., letter to W.E.B. Du Bois. (Boston, Mass., 1907 November 13)
    Asks that Du Bois call a meeting of all the national organization “to compare notes and formulate plans for concerted action to preserve and protect the civil and political rights, privileges and immunities of colored men in all their varied and varying phases, and to make united campaign against their infringement and denial.” Believes the Niagara meeting ought to allow for all the best minds to attend, not just council members.
1907 November 16

  • Mitchell, George W., letter to W.E.B. Du Bois. (Philadelphia, Pa., 1907 November 16)
    Cannot attend, but will designate a proxy. Asks whether there are plans to eulogize any of the heroes? “They seem to be holding meetings in Boston but it does not appear that they are under auspices of the N.M. . . “
1907 November 26

  • Morgan, Clement G., letter to Charles Bentley. (Boston, Mass., 1907 November 26)
    A mid-winter meeting of the Niagara Movement would be “the worst calamity that could befall it.” If the purpose of the meeting is the “enormity of the crime of Mass. membership and methods,” should they not meet in Boston?
1907 December

  • Niagara Movement, Possible attendees at mid-winter meeting. (1907 December)
  • Niagara Movement. Committee of Organization, Report on the Committee of Organization. (S.l., 1907 December)
    “In submitting this report your committee is deeply impressed with the conviction that now, if ever, is the time for the widespread and thorough organization of patriotic and liberty-loving American Negroes. The persistence and intensifying of race prejudice, and the injustice and oppression resulting therefrom, must be met by organization the more permanent and thoroughgoing. . . ” Suggests founding “eminently practical” local branches whereever the Negro population is considerable and using these to fight local wrongs. “It is not greatness of numbers that the Niagara Movement needs, but a united cooperation of men and women who are inspired with the same ideals and who are burning with the desire to achieve those ideals. In the union of such souls there is strength.” Signed by M.W. Gilbert, Carrie W. Clifford, L. Joseph Brown, E. Burton Ceruti, G.W. Ford, and N. B. Marshall.
  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Communication to the Niagara Movement Executive and Sub-Executive Committees. (Cleveland, Ohio, 1907 December)
    “The Massachusetts trouble has spread from a local coolness to a cause of nation-wide dissention in our ranks.” The Excutive Committee has refused to assent to the General Secretary’s proposal for solution, so Du Bois throws it to them to resolve.
  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, A Brief Resume of the Massachusetts Trouble in the Niagara Movement. (Cleveland, Ohio, 1907 December)
    Presented at mid-winter meeting 1907, Niagara Movement. A thorough list of events, charges and countercharges.
  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, Rescript. The General Secretary to the Executive Committee and the Sub-Executive Committees. (Cleveland, Ohio, 1907 December)
    Agenda for mid-winter meeting.
1907 December 6

  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to Waldron. (Atlanta, Ga., 1907 December 6)
    Regarding resignation of Frederick McGhee as chair of the Legal Department.
  • Pickens, William, letter to W.E.B. Du Bois. (Talladega College, Talladega, Ala., 1907 December 6)
    Cannot attend the meeting in Cleveland, but would like to designate a proxy. “God save the Movement and prosper it.”
1907 December 20

  • Byrd, W. A., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Cotton Plant, Ark., 1907 December 20)
    Niagara Movement gaining ground in Arkansas, “the stronghold of Washingtonism.” Has heard of the trouble within the Movement, but believes it can be resolved. “N.M. stands for too much to be jeopardized by personal piques, or social spats. I would counsel prudence and a charitable spirit, in all. I feel very keenly for you as it appears the whole movement rests on your shoulders. If a failure is had, attempts will be made to saddle it on you, if success is realized, ‘We killed the bear.’ Your high sense of honor, keen sense of justice and true devotion to the cause will make you a safe leader in this crisis.”
1907 December 27

  • Goff, Robert W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Lynchburg, Va., 1907 December 27)
    Agrees to serve as state secretary for Virginia.
1907 December?

  • Niagara Movement. Executive Committee, Resolution. (Cleveland, Ohio?, 1907 December?)
    Appointment of a committee of five (Bentley, Madden, Barber, Waldron, Mitchell) to propose amendments to the Niagara constitution.

  • Byrd, W. A., W. E. Du Bois and Booker Washington. (Cotton Plant, Ark., 1907)
    Essay comparing the “extremes in leadership among Negroes in America.”
  • Du Bois, W. E. B., to the Niagara Movement Executive Committee. (Atlanta, Ga., 1907)
    Resigning as Executive Officer of the Niagara Movement as of Dec. 27 [letter marked "Not Sent"]. “The organization has now come to a place where it demands in its executive talents other than those which I possess, moreover I feel that I have given as much time to this work as I can well spare from my regular duties. . . “
  • Du Bois, W. E. B., draft letter to the Niagara Movement Executive Committee. (Atlanta, Ga., 1907)
    Draft of letter of resignation as executive officer of the Niagara Movement. States he had intended to resign during the Boston meeting, but decided not to in face of the “embroglio.” His efforts to resolve the crisis with the executive committee led only to silence and vituperation. “I have done my duty honestly and unflinchingly & no man has he right to ask further sacrifices from me. . . ” Letter lacking first page. With note to Charles Bentley.
  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to the Niagara Movement Executive Committee. (S.l., 1907)
    Re: the “Massachusetts trouble” — growing estrangement between prominent members there. The chief disputes: 1) whether persons unaffiliated with the movement or even inimical to it, should be allowed to assist in raising funds; and 2) who were bona fide members of the Massachusetts branch.
  • Niagara Movement, Copies of Recommendations. ([Boston, Mass.], 1907)
    Instructions to committees.
  • Niagara Movement, Women and the Niagara Movement, Circular no. 3. (S.l., 1907)
  • Niagara Movement. Department of Civil Rights, Supplement to the Department’s Annual Report for 1906-7. (S.l.: s.n., 1907)
    Sections: 1) The kind of work which may be done by a state organization of the character suggested in Departmental Letter, no. 1; 2) Some suggestive figures [potential voting power of African Americans]; 3) On the improvement of railroad accommodations in the south; 4) What of the civil rights act in your state?
  • Niagara Movement. Massachusetts Branch, Ballot for admission of new members from Massachusetts branch.. ([Boston, Mass.], 1907)

1908 January 11

  • Niagara Movement. Executive Committee, . (Baltimore, Md., 1908 January 11)
    Report on mid-winter meeting in Cleveland. Includes list of members in attendance, confirmation of Massachusetts members, reports from Committee on Education; notice that fourth annual meeting will be held in Niagara Falls.
1908 February 11

  • Waldron, J. Milton, letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Washington, D.C., 1908 February 11)
    Finances. Niagara men in D.C. “are beginning to get busy.” Intends to send 1,000 copies of enclosed letter under name of the Niagara Movement and Afro-American Council regarding struggle for civil and voting rights and support for Senator Joseph Benson Foraker.
1908 February 25

1908 March 14

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, letter to colleagues. (Atlanta, Ga., 1908 March 14)
    Update on activities; another Jim Crow car case; anti-Taft campaign; death of Ida D. Bailey;
1908 June 15

1908 July 15

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, letter to Colleague. (St. Paul, Minn., 1908 July 15)
    Request for attendance at 4th annual Niagara meeting.
1908 August 5

  • Hershaw, L. M., letter to Friend. (Washington, D.C., 1908 August 5)
    Announces meeting of D.C. branch of Niagara Movement, with summary of things accomplished to date.
1908 August 29

  • Ovington, Mary W., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1908 August 29)
    Unhappy she cannot attend the Niagara meeting. “At the Federation of Colord Women’s Clubs the other evening we sang John Brown, and I thought, as I always do when I sing that song now, of our gathering at Harper’s Ferry. That was a momorable time, and the inspiration from it has helped me often.
    “Go on with your constructive work, with the effort to win the rights of manhood for every Negro in the country. And work with those who are fighting the same fight. You ought all to be done with bickering with Republicans or Democrats. There is a working man’s party in the country. How can the Negro belong with any other?”
1908 August 31-September 2

  • Mitchell, George W., Report of the Secretary for the State of Penna.. (Oberlin, Ohio, 1908 August 31-September 2)
    Report in National Negro Political League to protest treatment of “our soldiers” and oppose nomination of Taft; segregation in Philadelphia public schools; opposition building to Republican party: Philadelphians “are beginning to see the difference between the party of Sumner, Julian and Hale and the posthumous bastard political organization which now claims these men as its father”; John Brown Memorial Committee.
1908 August

1908 October 27

  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to Robert S. Barcus. (Atlanta, Ga., 1908 October 27)
    “My attitude is this: the Niagara Movement is an organization that affiliates with no political party and pays its own bills, it is however, perfectly proper for individual members of the Movement to receive pay for legitimate political service from any part in whose principles they believe; they have no right in such case to use the official name of the organization.”
1908 September 3

  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, letter to Mason A. Hawkins. (Oberlin, Ohio, 1908 September 3)
    Notifying Hawkins that he has been elected Treasurer.
  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, letter to J. M. Waldron. (Oberlin, Ohio, 1908 September 3)
    Disappointed Waldron could not attend annual meeting.
1908 September

  • Niagara Movement, Niagara Movement. ([Oberlin, Ohio], 1908 September)
    Brief summary of 4th Niagara meeting.

1909 January 23

1909 February 26

  • Niagara Movement. Treasurer, Report. (Washington, D.C., 1909 February 26)
    For period Sept. 1, 1907-Feb. 26, 1909. Includes Statement of monies received by J. Milton Waldron N.M. for Jim Crow Car Fund.”
1909 May 24

  • Brown, Thomas D., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Salem, Mass., 1909 May 24)
    Is not a member of the Niagara Movement and does not wish to be regarded as one. “The reason for which is this, at one time I attended one of the special meeting of the Mass. branch of the organization, at which time, the meeting ended in a wrangle, with everyone talking, the result being that the members could not agree on any common plan. At that time I secretly avowed that I would never give one cent to an organization of this kind regardless of its principles, as I am very poor, and have to work too hard for my money. And moreover I could not see how the organization could do an effective work where ‘good fellowship’ seemed to be lacking.”
1909 July 13

  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to L. M. Hershaw. (Wilberforce, Ohio, 1909 July 13)
    Asks whether they might invite the Haitian minister to the U.S. to the next meeting at Sea Isle City.
  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to John Hurst. (Wilberforce, Ohio, 1909 July 13)
    Wishes to invitre the Haitian Minister to the U.S. to the annual meeting.
1909 July 15

  • Hawkins, M. A., letter toW. E. B. Du Bois. (Columbia University [New York, N.Y.], 1909 July 15)
    Will attend the meetings for at least one day.
1909 July 31

  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to George W. Crawford. (Wilberforce, Ohio, 1909 July 31)
    Hopes Crawford can attend the meeting: “I know that you have been disappointed in the actual accomplishment of the Niagara Movement, and so have I, but the way to do things in this world is to keep everlastingly at it. I am keeping at this with great personal sacrifice and I hope you will too.”
1909 August 10

  • Webster, D. Macon, letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (New York, N.Y., 1909 August 10)
    Regarding interest in inviting a Russian to speak at the 5th Niagara meeting.
1909 August 14

  • McGhee, Frederick L., To the Fifth Annual Conference: Niagara Movement, Sea Isle City, N.J.. (St. Paul, Minn., 1909 August 14)
    Report of the Legal Committee: reaffirmation of “unceasing war against the denial of the suffrage and for civil rights. . . . Ours is the only organization of negros that can boast of having actually carried our cause to the Supreme Court, prosecuted an action in the Federal Court and both with success.” Outcome of three civil rights cases, “serious blow” in Berea College decision. Need for the race to be more involved in their own defence and use the courts; need for a fund to support legal cases.
1909 August 30

  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to Mason A. Hawkins. (Wilberforce, Ohio, 1909 August 30)
    Seeking addresses of members who joined the Movement at Sea Isle City.
1909 August

  • Mitchell, George W., Report of the Secretary for the State of Pennsylvania of the N.M. Conference Held at Sea Isle City, N.J. Aug. 15th to 18th, 1909. (S.l., 1909 August)
    No progress with the John Brown Memorial Committee. Electoral politics in Pennsylvania, timidty of “colored editors. . . forced upon them by the Republican party and its leaders.” “There seems to be a general impression abroad among colored men that the Republican prty has deserted them in its efforts to build up its fortunes among the white people of the south”; loud complaint after nomination of Taft. School segregation moving forward in Pennsylvania and inequity in hiring teachers now being protested: “The stir that the affair made among the colored people of Philadelphia did much to cower into silence and shame many separationists among us who had allied themselves with the Superintendent of Education and whose general attitude on such questions had been such that they could not consistently oppose separation. The net result of the agitation has been to turn over more schools to colored teachers though other children may attend if they choose.” No new economic opportunities for colored people in Pennsylvania.
1909 November 5

  • Bentley, Charles E., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Chicago, Ill., 1909 November 5)
    Suggests Du Bois send a letter to members “asking that their enthusiasm be renewed and subscribe to the Horizon. This can be supplemented by a case for meetings and the machinery started again. I think some such action from the head of the organization necessary for a renewal of interest everywhere.”


  • Du Bois, W. E. B.?, Draft resolution. (S.l., 1909?)
    Draft resolution to appoint committee to determine whether to establish a fraternal benefit association with “original rituals. That the object of this organization shall be honest & effective industrial insurance, racial pride and the furnishing of a defense fund which the Niagara Movement shall administer. The Grand lodge of the benefit Association shall meet successively at various centers of Negro population in mid-winter. . . “
  • Niagara Movement, . (S.l.: s.n., 1909?)
    Brief summary of Niagara activities in 1909.
1910 February 13

1910 July 22


  • Niagara Movement. General Secretary, postcard to membership. (S.l., 1910)
    Announcing 6th annual meeting, with “quiet outing” at Sea Isle City on the subject of concentration of effort through race organization.
1914 November 24

  • Wolfe, A. B., letter to W. E. B. Du Bois. (Austin, Tex., 1914 November 24)
    Requests brief statement on principles of the NAACP along the lines of the Niagara Movement platform. “I have therefore practically decided to print the Platform of the Niagara Movement — as, I take it, it did not differ in inner essentials from the present association.”
1914 December 15

  • Du Bois, W. E. B., letter to A. B. Wolfe. (S.l., 1914 December 15)
    “I beg to say that the platform of the Niagara Movement is probably more radical, at least more out-spoken, than anything that the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People has published. At the same time the general paths of the two organizations are practically identical. . . .”

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